The Sacred BibleThe Book of Exodus
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[Exodus 1]
[Exodus 1]

{1:1} Hæc sunt nomina filiorum Israel qui ingressi sunt in Ægyptum cum Iacob: singuli cum domibus suis introierunt:
{1:1} These are the names of the sons of Israel, who went into Egypt with Jacob. They entered, each one with his house:

{1:2} Ruben, Simeon, Levi, Iudas,
{1:2} Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah,

{1:3} Issachar, Zabulon et Beniamin,
{1:3} Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin,

{1:4} Dan, et Nephthali, Gad, et Aser.
{1:4} Dan and Naphtali, Gad and Asher.

{1:5} Erant igitur omnes animæ eorum qui egressi sunt de femore Iacob, septuaginta: Ioseph autem in Ægypto erat.
{1:5} Therefore, all the souls of those who went forth from Jacob’s thigh were seventy. Now Joseph was in Egypt.

{1:6} Quo mortuo, et universis fratribus eius, omnique cognatione illa,
{1:6} When he had died, along with all of his brothers and all of that generation,

{1:7} filii Israel creverunt, et quasi germinantes multiplicati sunt: ac roborati nimis, impleverunt terram.
{1:7} the sons of Israel increased, and they multiplied like seedlings. And having been strengthened exceedingly, they filled the land.

~ The word ‘germinantes’ is an example of a participle used as a noun: seedlings.

{1:8} Surrexit interea rex novus super Ægyptum, qui ignorabat Ioseph:
{1:8} Meanwhile, there arose a new king over Egypt, who was ignorant of Joseph.

{1:9} et ait ad populum suum: Ecce, populus filiorum Israel multus, et fortior nobis est.
{1:9} And he said to his people: “Behold, the people of the sons of Israel are many, and they are stronger than we are.

{1:10} Venite, sapienter opprimamus eum, ne forte multiplicetur: et si ingruerit contra nos bellum, addatur inimicis nostris, expugnatisque nobis egrediatur de terra.
{1:10} Come, let us wisely oppress them, lest they multiply; and if any war should advance against us, they may be added to our enemies, and having fought against us, they might depart from the land.”

{1:11} Præposuit itaque eis magistros operum, ut affligerent eos oneribus: ædificaveruntque urbes tabernaculorum Pharaoni, Phithom, et Ramesses.
{1:11} And so he set over them masters of the works, in order to afflict them with burdens. And they built for Pharaoh the cities of the tabernacles: Pithom and Raamses.

{1:12} Quantoque opprimebant eos, tanto magis multiplicabantur, et crescebant:
{1:12} And the more they oppressed them, so much more did they multiply and increase.

{1:13} oderantque filios Israel Ægyptii, et affligebant illudentes eis:
{1:13} And the Egyptians hated the sons of Israel, and they afflicted them and mocked them.

{1:14} atque ad amaritudinem perducebant vitam eorum operibus duris luti, et lateris, omnique famulatu, quo in terræ operibus premebantur.
{1:14} And they led their life directly into bitterness, with hard work in clay and brick, and with all kinds of servitude, so that they were being overwhelmed with the works of the land.

{1:15} Dixit autem rex Ægypti obstetricibus Hebræorum: quarum una vocabatur Sephora, altera Phua,
{1:15} Then the king of Egypt spoke to the midwives of the Hebrews, (one of whom one was called Shiphrah, another Puah)

{1:16} præcipiens eis: Quando obstetricabitis Hebræas, et partus tempus advenerit: si masculus fuerit, interficite eum: si femina, reservate.
{1:16} instructing them: “When you will act as a midwife to the Hebrew women, and the time of delivery has arrived: if it is male, put it to death; if it is female, retain it.”

{1:17} Timuerunt autem obstetrices Deum, et non fecerunt iuxta præceptum regis Ægypti, sed conservabant mares.
{1:17} But the midwives feared God, and so they did not act according to the precept of the king of Egypt, but they kept the males safe.

{1:18} Quibus ad se accersitis, rex ait: Quidnam est hoc quod facere voluistis, ut pueros servaretis?
{1:18} And summoning them, the king said, “What did you intend to do, so that you would save the boys?”

{1:19} Quæ responderunt: Non sunt Hebreæ sicut Ægyptiæ mulieres: ipsæ enim obstetricandi habent scientiam, et priusquam veniamus ad eas, pariunt.
{1:19} They responded: “The Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women. For they themselves have the wisdom of a midwife, and so they give birth before we can come to them.”

~ The midwives were not lying. The Hebrew women were very hardy and strong, having spent their lives in manual labor and hardship. The Hebrew women also feared that their child would be male and be killed, so they did not call for the midwives, if they could avoid doing so. So, in fact, they did often give birth before the midwives arrived. They also likely had some obstetrical knowledge handed down through their families, because the Hebrew people had strong extended families. So, the statements by the midwives were true. They did not reveal the additional truth that when they were present for the birth, they deliberately helped to preserve the males from death. But they did not lie.

{1:20} Bene ergo fecit Deus obstetricibus: et crevit populus, confortatusque est nimis.
{1:20} Therefore, God acted favorably toward the midwives. And the people increased, and they were strengthened exceedingly.

{1:21} Et quia timuerunt obstetrices Deum, ædificavit eis domos.
{1:21} And because the midwives feared God, he built houses for them.

{1:22} Præcepit ergo Pharao omni populo suo, dicens: Quidquid masculini sexus natum fuerit, in flumen proiicite: quidquid feminini, reservate.
{1:22} Therefore, Pharaoh instructed all his people, saying: “Whatever will be born of the male sex, cast it into the river; whatever will be born of the female sex, retain it.”

[Exodus 2]
[Exodus 2]

{2:1} Egressus est post hæc vir de domo Levi: et accepit uxorem stirpis suæ.
{2:1} After these things, a man from the house of Levi went out, and he took a wife from his own stock.

{2:2} Quæ concepit, et peperit filium: et videns eum elegantem, abscondit tribus mensibus.
{2:2} And she conceived and bore a son. And seeing him to be handsome, she hid him for three months.

{2:3} Cumque iam celare non posset, sumpsit fiscellam scirpeam, et linivit eam bitumine ac pice: posuitque intus infantulum, et exposuit eum in carecto ripæ fluminis,
{2:3} And when she was no longer able to hide him, she took a small basket woven of bulrushes, and she smeared it with pitch as well as tar. And she placed the little infant inside, and she laid him in the sedges by the bank of the river.

{2:4} stante procul sorore eius, et considerante eventum rei.
{2:4} His sister was standing at a distance and was wondering what would happen.

{2:5} Ecce autem descendebat filia Pharaonis ut lavaretur in flumine: et puellæ eius gradiebantur per crepidinem alvei. Quæ cum vidisset fiscellam in papyrione, misit unam e famulabus suis: et allatam
{2:5} Then, behold, the daughter of Pharaoh descended to wash in the river. And her maids walked along the edge of the cove. And when she had seen the small basket among the papyruses, she sent one of her servants for it. And when it was brought,

~ The women would not have bathed in the main part of the river, with rushing waters, but in a small cove in the river bank, where the waters would be still. The word ‘alvei’ does not mean ‘river,’ but has a meaning, in this context, like the English word ‘cove.’

{2:6} aperiens, cernensque in ea parvulum vagientem, miserta eius, ait: De infantibus Hebræorum est hic.
{2:6} she opened it; and realizing that within it was a little one crying, she took pity on him, and she said: “This is one of the infants of the Hebrews.”

{2:7} Cui soror pueri: Vis, inquit, ut vadam, et vocem tibi mulierem Hebræam, quæ nutrire possit infantulum?
{2:7} And the sister of the boy said to her: “If you wish, I will go and call to you a Hebrew woman, who will be able nurse the infant.”

{2:8} Respondit: Vade. Perrexit puella et vocavit matrem suam.
{2:8} She responded, “Go.” The maid went directly and called her mother.

{2:9} Ad quam locuta filia Pharaonis: Accipe, ait, puerum istum, et nutri mihi: ego dabo tibi mercedem tuam. Suscepit mulier, et nutrivit puerum: adultumque tradidit filiæ Pharaonis.
{2:9} And the daughter of Pharaoh said to her: “Take this boy and nurse him for me. I will give you your wages.” The woman took and nursed the boy. And when he was mature, she delivered him to the daughter of Pharaoh.

{2:10} Quem illa adoptavit in locum filii, vocavitque nomen eius Moyses, dicens: Quia de aqua tuli eum.
{2:10} And she adopted him in place of a son, and she called his name Moses, saying, “Because I took him from the water.”

{2:11} In diebus illis postquam creverat Moyses, egressus est ad fratres suos: viditque afflictionem eorum, et virum Ægyptium percutientem quemdam de Hebræis fratribus suis.
{2:11} In those days, after Moses had grown up, he went out to his brothers. And he saw their affliction and an Egyptian man striking a certain one of the Hebrews, his brothers.

{2:12} Cumque circumspexisset huc atque illuc, et nullum adesse vidisset, percussum Ægyptium abscondit sabulo.
{2:12} And when he had looked around this way and that, and had seen no one nearby, he struck down the Egyptian and hid him in the sand.

{2:13} Et egressus die altero conspexit duos Hebræos rixantes: dixitque ei qui faciebat iniuriam: Quare percutis proximum tuum?
{2:13} And going out the next day, he spotted two Hebrews quarrelling violently. And he said to him who was causing the injury, “Why do you strike your neighbor?”

{2:14} Qui respondit: Quis te constituit principem et iudicem super nos? num occidere me tu vis, sicut heri occidisti Ægyptium? Timuit Moyses, et ait: Quomodo palam factum est verbum istud?
{2:14} But he responded: “Who appointed you as leader and judge over us? Do you want to kill me, just as yesterday you killed the Egyptian?” Moses was afraid, and he said, “How has this word become known?”

{2:15} Audivitque Pharao sermonem hunc, et quærebat occidere Moysen: qui fugiens de conspectu eius, moratus est in Terra Madian, et sedit iuxta puteum.
{2:15} And Pharaoh heard this talk, and he sought to kill Moses. But fleeing from his sight, he stayed in the land of Midian, and he sat down next to a well.

{2:16} Erant autem sacerdoti Madian septem filiæ, quæ venerunt ad hauriendam aquam: et impletis canalibus adaquare cupiebant greges patris sui.
{2:16} Now there was a priest of Midian with seven daughters, who came to draw water. And having filled the troughs, they desired to water their father’s flocks.

{2:17} Supervenere pastores, et eiecerunt eas: surrexitque Moyses, et defensis puellis, adaquavit oves earum.
{2:17} The shepherds overcame them and drove them away. And Moses rose up, and defending the girls, he watered their sheep.

{2:18} Quæ cum revertissent ad Raguel patrem suum, dixit ad eas: Cur velocius venistis solito?
{2:18} And when they had returned to their father, Reuel, he said to them, “Why have you arrived sooner than usual?”

{2:19} Responderunt: Vir Ægyptius liberavit nos de manu pastorum: insuper et hausit aquam nobiscum, potumque dedit ovibus.
{2:19} They responded: “A man of Egypt freed us from the hands of the shepherds. Moreover, he also drew water with us and gave the sheep to drink.”

{2:20} At ille: Ubi est? inquit, Quare dimisistis hominem? Vocate eum ut comedat panem.
{2:20} But he said: “Where is he? Why have you dismissed the man? Call him, so that he may eat bread.”

{2:21} Iuravit ergo Moyses quod habitaret cum eo. Accepitque Sephoram filiam eius uxorem:
{2:21} Therefore, Moses swore that he would live with him. And he accepted his daughter Zipporah as a wife.

{2:22} quæ peperit ei filium, quem vocavit Gersam, dicens: Advena fui in terra aliena. Alterum vero peperit, quem vocavit Eliezer, dicens: Deus enim patris mei adiutor meus eripuit me de manu Pharaonis.
{2:22} And she bore a son to him, whom he called Gershom, saying, “I have been a newcomer in a foreign land.” In truth, she bore another, whom he called Eliezer, saying, “For the God of my father, my helper, has rescued me from the hand of Pharaoh.”

{2:23} Post multum vero tempore mortuus est rex Ægypti: et ingemiscentes filii Israel, propter opera vociferati sunt: ascenditque clamor eorum ad Deum ab operibus.
{2:23} In truth, after a long time, the king of Egypt was dead. And the sons of Israel, groaning, cried out because of the works. And their cry ascended to God from the works.

{2:24} Et audivit gemitum eorum, ac recordatus est fœderis quod pepigit cum Abraham, Isaac, et Iacob.
{2:24} And he heard their groaning, and he also remembered the covenant which he formed with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.

{2:25} Et respexit Dominus filios Israel et cognovit eos.
{2:25} And the Lord looked with favor on the sons of Israel, and he knew them.

[Exodus 3]
[Exodus 3]

{3:1} Moyses autem pascebat oves Iethro soceri sui sacerdotis Madian: cumque minasset gregem ad interiora deserti, venit ad montem Dei Horeb.
{3:1} Now Moses was pasturing the sheep of his father-in-law Jethro, a priest of Midian. And when he had driven the flock into the interior of the desert, he came to the mountain of God, Horeb.

{3:2} Apparuitque ei Dominus in flamma ignis de medio rubi: et videbat quod rubus arderet, et non combureretur.
{3:2} And the Lord appeared to him in a flame of fire from the midst of a bush. And he saw that the bush was burning and was not burnt.

{3:3} Dixit ergo Moyses: Vadam, et videbo visionem hanc magnam, quare non comburatur rubus.
{3:3} Therefore, Moses said, “I will go and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.”

{3:4} Cernens autem Dominus quod pergeret ad videndum, vocavit eum de medio rubi, et ait: Moyses, Moyses. Qui respondit: Adsum.
{3:4} Then the Lord, discerning that he proceeded on to see it, called to him from the midst of the bush, and he said, “Moses, Moses.” And he responded, “Here I am.”

{3:5} At ille: Ne appropies, inquit, huc: solve calceamentum de pedibus tuis: locus enim, in quo stas, terra sancta est.
{3:5} And he said: “Lest you should approach here, remove the shoes from your feet. For the place on which you stand is holy ground.”

{3:6} Et ait: Ego sum Deus patris tui, Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, et Deus Iacob. Abscondit Moyses faciem suam: non enim audebat aspicere contra Deum.
{3:6} And he said, “I am the God of your father: the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” Moses hid his face, for he dared not look directly at God.

{3:7} Cui ait Dominus: Vidi afflictionem populi mei in Ægypto, et clamorem eius audivi propter duritiam eorum qui præsunt operibus:
{3:7} And the Lord said to him: “I have seen the affliction of my people in Egypt, and I have heard their outcry because of the harshness of those who are over the works.

{3:8} et sciens dolorem eius, descendi ut liberem eum de manibus Ægyptiorum, et educam de terra illa in terram bonam, et spatiosam, in terram quæ fluit lacte et melle, ad loca Chananæi, et Hethæi, et Amorrhæi, et Pherezæi, et Hevæi, et Iebusæi.
{3:8} And knowing their sorrow, I have descended in order to free them from the hands of the Egyptians, and to lead them from that land into a good and spacious land, into a land which flows with milk and honey, to the places of the Canaanite, and Hittite, and Amorite, and Perizzite, and Hivite, and Jebusite.

{3:9} Clamor ergo filiorum Israel venit ad me: vidique afflictionem eorum, qua ab Ægyptiis opprimuntur.
{3:9} And so, the outcry of the sons of Israel has come to me. And I have seen their affliction, with which they are oppressed by the Egyptians.

{3:10} Sed veni, et mittam te ad Pharaonem, ut educas populum meum, filios Israel de Ægypto.
{3:10} But come, and I will send you to Pharaoh, so that you may lead my people, the sons of Israel, out of Egypt.”

{3:11} Dixitque Moyses ad Deum: Quis sum ego ut vadam ad Pharaonem, et educam filios Israel de Ægypto?
{3:11} And Moses said to God, “Who am I that I should go to Pharaoh and that I should lead the sons of Israel out of Egypt?”

{3:12} Qui dixit ei: Ego ero tecum: et hoc habebis signum, quod miserim te: Cum eduxeris populum meum de Ægypto, immolabis Deo super montem istum.
{3:12} And he said to him: “I will be with you. And you will have this as a sign that I have sent you: When you will have brought my people out of Egypt, you will offer sacrifice to God upon this mountain.”

{3:13} Ait Moyses ad Deum: Ecce ego vadam ad filios Israel, et dicam eis: Deus patrum vestrorum misit me ad vos. Si dixerint mihi: Quod est nomen eius? quid dicam eis?
{3:13} Moses said to God: “Behold, I will go to the sons of Israel, and I will say to them, ‘The God of your fathers has sent me to you.’ If they say to me, ‘What is his name?’ What shall I say to them?”

{3:14} Dixit Deus ad Moysen: EGO SUM QUI SUM. Ait: Sic dices filiis Israel: QUI EST, misit me ad vos.
{3:14} God said to Moses, “I AM WHO AM.” He said: “Thus shall you say to the sons of Israel: ‘HE WHO IS has sent me to you.’ ”

{3:15} Dixitque iterum Deus ad Moysen: Hæc dices filiis Israel: Dominus Deus patrum vestrorum, Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, et Deus Iacob misit me ad vos: hoc nomen mihi est in æternum, et hoc memoriale meum in generationem et generationem.
{3:15} And God said again to Moses: “Thus shall you say to the sons of Israel: ‘The Lord God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has sent me to you.’ This is the name for me in eternity, and this is my memorial from generation to generation.

{3:16} Vade, et congrega seniores Israel, et dices ad eos: Dominus Deus patrum vestrorum apparuit mihi, Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, et Deus Iacob, dicens: Visitans visitavi vos, et vidi omnia quæ acciderunt vobis in Ægypto:
{3:16} Go and gather together the elders of Israel, and you shall say to them: ‘The Lord God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to me, saying: When visiting, I have visited you, and I have seen all that has befallen you in Egypt.

{3:17} Et dixi ut educam vos de afflictione Ægypti in terram Chananæi et Hethæi et Amorrhæi et Pherezæi et Hevæi et Iebusæi, ad terram fluentem lacte et melle.
{3:17} And I have spoken in order to lead you out of the affliction of Egypt, into the land of the Canaanite, and Hittite, and Amorite, and Perizzite, and Hivite, and Jebusite, into a land flowing with milk and honey.’

{3:18} Et audient vocem tuam: ingredierisque tu, et seniores Israel ad regem Ægypti, et dices ad eum: Dominus Deus Hebræorum vocavit nos: ibimus viam trium dierum in solitudinem, ut immolemus Domino Deo nostro.
{3:18} And they shall hear your voice. And you shall enter, you and the elders of Israel, to the king of Egypt, and you shall say to him: ‘The Lord God of the Hebrews has called us. We shall go three days’ journey into the wilderness, in order to offer sacrifice to the Lord our God.’

{3:19} Sed ego scio quod non dimittet vos rex Ægypti ut eatis nisi per manum validam.
{3:19} But I know that the king of Egypt will not release you, unless you go out by a powerful hand.

{3:20} Extendam enim manum meam, et percutiam Ægyptum in cunctis mirabilibus meis, quæ facturus sum in medio eorum: post hæc dimittet vos.
{3:20} For I will extend my hand, and I will strike Egypt with all my wonders that I will do in the midst of them. After these things, he will release you.

{3:21} Daboque gratiam populo huic coram Ægyptiis: et cum egrediemini, non exibitis vacui:
{3:21} And I will grant favor to this people in the sight of the Egyptians. And so, when you go forth, you shall not go out empty.

{3:22} sed postulabit mulier a vicina sua, et ab hospita sua, vasa argentea et aurea, ac vestes: ponetisque eas super filios et filias vestras, et spoliabitis Ægyptum.
{3:22} But every woman shall ask of her neighbor and of her hostess vessels of silver and of gold, as well as garments. And you shall set them upon your sons and daughters, and you shall despoil Egypt.”

[Exodus 4]
[Exodus 4]

{4:1} Respondens Moyses, ait: Non credent mihi, neque audient vocem meam, sed dicent: Non apparuit tibi Dominus.
{4:1} Responding, Moses said, “They will not believe me, and they will not listen to my voice, but they will say: ‘The Lord has not appeared to you.’ ”

{4:2} Dixit ergo ad eum: Quid est quod tenes in manu tua? Respondit: Virga.
{4:2} Therefore, he said to him, “What is that you hold in your hand?” He answered, “A staff.”

{4:3} Dixitque Dominus: Proiice eam in terram. Proiecit, et versa est in colubrum, ita ut fugeret Moyses.
{4:3} And the Lord said, “Cast it down upon the ground.” He cast it down, and it was turned into a snake, so that Moses fled away.

{4:4} Dixitque Dominus: Extende manum tuam, et apprehende caudam eius. Extendit, et tenuit, versaque est in virgam.
{4:4} And the Lord said, “Reach out your hand, and take hold of its tail.” He reached out his hand and took hold, and it was turned into a staff.

{4:5} Ut credant, inquit, quod apparuerit tibi Dominus Deus patrum suorum, Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, et Deus Iacob.
{4:5} “So may they believe,” he said, “that the Lord God of their fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, has appeared to you.”

{4:6} Dixitque Dominus rursum: Mitte manum tuam in sinum tuum. Quam cum misisset in sinum, protulit leprosam instar nivis.
{4:6} And the Lord said again, “Put your hand into your bosom.” And when he had put it into his bosom, he brought it out leprous, resembling snow.

{4:7} Retrahe, ait, manum tuam in sinum tuum. Retraxit, et protulit iterum, et erat similis carni reliquæ.
{4:7} “Put your hand back,” he said, “into your bosom.” He put it back and brought it out again, and it was like the rest of his flesh.

{4:8} Si non crediderint, inquit, tibi, neque audierint sermonem signi prioris, credent verbo signi sequentis.
{4:8} “If they will not believe you,” he said, “and will not listen to the sermon of the first sign, then they will believe the word of the subsequent sign.

{4:9} Quod si nec duobus quidem his signis crediderint, neque audierint vocem tuam: sume aquam fluminis, et effunde eam super aridam, et quidquid hauseris de fluvio, vertetur in sanguinem.
{4:9} But if they will not believe even these two signs, and they will not listen to your voice: take from the water of the river, and pour it upon the dry land, and whatever you will have drawn from the river will be turned into blood.”

{4:10} Ait Moyses: Obsecro Domine, non sum eloquens ab heri, et nudiustertius: et ex quo locutus es ad servum tuum, impeditioris et tardioris linguæ sum.
{4:10} Moses said: “I beg you, O Lord, I was not eloquent yesterday or the day before. And from the time that you have spoken to your servant, I have a greater impediment and slowness of tongue.”

{4:11} Dixit Dominus ad eum: Quis fecit os hominis? aut quis fabricatus est mutum et surdum, videntem et cæcum? nonne ego?
{4:11} The Lord said to him: “Who made the mouth of man? And who has formed the mute and the deaf, the seeing and the blind? Was it not I?

{4:12} Perge igitur, et ego ero in ore tuo: doceboque te quid loquaris.
{4:12} Go on, therefore, and I will be in your mouth. And I will teach you what you shall say.”

{4:13} At ille: Obsecro, inquit, Domine, mitte quem missurus es.
{4:13} But he said, “I beg you, O Lord, send whomever else you would send.”

{4:14} Iratus Dominus in Moysen, ait: Aaron frater tuus levites, scio quod eloquens sit: ecce ipse egreditur in occursum tuum, vidensque te lætabitur corde.
{4:14} The Lord, being angry at Moses, said: “Aaron the Levite is your brother. I know that he is eloquent. Behold, he is going out to meet you, and seeing you, he will rejoice in heart.

{4:15} Loquere ad eum, et pone verba mea in ore eius: et ego ero in ore tuo, et in ore illius, et ostendam vobis quid agere debeatis.
{4:15} Speak to him, and put my words in his mouth. And I will be in your mouth and in his mouth, and I will reveal to you what you must do.

{4:16} Ipse loquetur pro te ad populum, et erit os tuum: tu autem eris ei in his quæ ad Deum pertinent.
{4:16} He will speak for you to the people, and he will be your mouth. But you will be with him in those things that pertain to God.

{4:17} Virgam quoque hanc sume in manu tua, in qua facturus es signa.
{4:17} Also, take this staff into your hand; with it you will accomplish the signs.”

{4:18} Abiit Moyses, et reversus est ad Iethro socerum suum, dixitque ei: Vadam et revertar ad fratres meos in Ægyptum, ut videam si adhuc vivant. Cui ait Iethro: Vade in pace.
{4:18} Moses went forth, and he returned to Jethro, his father in law, and he said to him, “I shall go and return to my brothers in Egypt, so that I may see if they are still alive.” And Jethro said to him, “Go in peace.”

{4:19} Dixit ergo Dominus ad Moysen in Madian: Vade, et revertere in Ægyptum: mortui sunt enim omnes qui quærebant animam tuam.
{4:19} And so the Lord said to Moses in Midian: “Go, and return to Egypt. For all those who sought your life have died.”

{4:20} Tulit ergo Moyses uxorem suam, et filios suos, et imposuit eos super asinum, reversusque est in Ægyptum, portans virgam Dei in manu sua.
{4:20} Therefore, Moses took his wife and his sons, and he placed them upon a donkey, and he returned into Egypt, carrying the staff of God in his hand.

{4:21} Dixitque ei Dominus revertenti in Ægyptum: Vide ut omnia ostenta quæ posui in manu tua, facias coram Pharaone: ego indurabo cor eius, et non dimittet populum.
{4:21} And the Lord said to him, as he was returning to Egypt: “See that you accomplish, in the sight of Pharaoh, all the wonders that I have placed in your hand. I will harden his heart, and he will not release the people.

{4:22} Dicesque ad eum: Hæc dicit Dominus: Filius meus primogenitus Israel.
{4:22} And you shall say to him: ‘Thus says the Lord: Israel is my firstborn son.

{4:23} Dixi tibi: Dimitte filium meum ut serviat mihi; et noluisti dimittere eum: ecce ego interficiam filium tuum primogenitum.
{4:23} I have said to you: Release my son, so that he may serve me. And you were not willing to release him. Behold, I will put to death your firstborn son.’ ”

{4:24} Cumque esset in itinere, in diversorio occurrit ei Dominus, et volebat occidere eum.
{4:24} And while he was on the journey, at an inn, the Lord met him, and he was willing to kill him.

~ It seems, from the context of the story, that the one the Lord was willing to kill was not Moses, but the firstborn son of Moses. The prior verse spoke about firstborn sons, so the editor placed this event immediately after that text.

{4:25} Tulit idcirco Sephora acutissimam petram, et circumcidit præputium filii sui, tetigitque pedes eius, et ait: Sponsus sanguinum tu mihi es.
{4:25} For this reason, Zipporah took a very sharp stone, and she circumcised the foreskin of her son, and she touched his feet, and she said, “You are a bloody spouse to me.”

{4:26} Et dimisit eum postquam dixerat: Sponsus sanguinum ob circumcisionem.
{4:26} And he released him, after she had said, “You are a bloody spouse,” because of the circumcision.

{4:27} Dixit autem Dominus ad Aaron: Vade in occursum Moysi in desertum. Qui perrexit obviam ei in Montem Dei, et osculatus est eum.
{4:27} Then the Lord said to Aaron, “Go into the desert to meet Moses.” And he went directly to meet him on the mountain of God, and he kissed him.

~ This verse is out of chronological order, since, in the earlier verses, Moses has already left the mountain of God.

{4:28} Narravitque Moyses Aaron omnia verba Domini quibus miserat eum, et signa quæ mandaverat.
{4:28} And Moses explained to Aaron all the words of the Lord, by which he had sent him, and the signs which he had commanded.

{4:29} Veneruntque simul, et congregaverunt cunctos seniores filiorum Israel.
{4:29} And they arrived at the same time, and they gathered together all the elders of the sons of Israel.

{4:30} Locutusque est Aaron omnia verba quæ dixerat Dominus ad Moysen: et fecit signa coram populo,
{4:30} And Aaron spoke all the words which the Lord had said to Moses. And he accomplished the signs in the sight of the people,

{4:31} et credidit populus. Audieruntque quod visitasset Dominus filios Israel, et respexisset afflictionem illorum: et proni adoraverunt.
{4:31} and the people believed. And they heard that the Lord had visited the sons of Israel, and that he had looked with favor upon their affliction. And falling prostrate, they worshiped.

[Exodus 5]
[Exodus 5]

{5:1} Post hæc ingressi sunt Moyses et Aaron, et dixerunt Pharaoni: Hæc dicit Dominus Deus Israel: Dimitte populum meum ut sacrificet mihi in deserto.
{5:1} After these things, Moses and Aaron entered, and they said to Pharaoh: “Thus says the Lord God of Israel: Release my people, so that they may sacrifice to me in the desert.”

{5:2} At ille respondit: Quis est Dominus, ut audiam vocem eius, et dimittam Israel? Nescio Dominum, et Israel non dimittam.
{5:2} But he responded: “Who is the Lord, that I should listen to his voice and release Israel? I do not know the Lord, and I will not release Israel.”

{5:3} Dixeruntque: Deus Hebræorum vocavit nos, ut eamus viam trium dierum in solitudinem, et sacrificemus Domino Deo nostro: ne forte accidat nobis pestis aut gladius.
{5:3} And they said: “The God of the Hebrews has called us, so that we may go three days’ journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to the Lord our God. Otherwise, a pestilence or the sword may befall us.”

{5:4} Ait ad eos rex Ægypti: Quare Moyses et Aaron solicitatis populum ab operibus suis? Ite ad onera vestra.
{5:4} The king of Egypt said to them: “Why do you, Moses and Aaron, distract the people from their works? Go back to your burdens.”

{5:5} Dixitque Pharao: Multus est populus terræ: videtis quod turba succreverit: quanto magis si dederitis eis requiem ab operibus?
{5:5} And Pharaoh said: “The people of the land are many. You see that the turmoil has increased: how much more if you give them rest from the works?”

~ The word ‘turba’ can refer to a multitude or crowd, but moreover it refers to a crowd that is causing a disturbance, or which has undue influence.

{5:6} Præcepit ergo in die illo præfectis operum et exactoribus populi, dicens:
{5:6} Therefore, on the same day, he instructed the overseers of the works, and the taskmasters of the people, saying:

~ Or, more literally, ‘the exactors of the people.’

{5:7} Nequaquam ultra dabitis paleas populo ad conficiendos lateres, sicut prius: sed ipsi vadant, et colligant stipulas.
{5:7} “You shall no longer give chaff to the people to form bricks, as before. But they may go and gather straw.

{5:8} Et mensuram laterum, quam prius faciebant, imponetis super eos, nec minuetis quidquam: vacant enim, et idcirco vociferantur, dicentes: Eamus, et sacrificemus Deo nostro.
{5:8} And you shall impose upon them the same quota of bricks that they made before. Neither will you lessen anything, for they are idle, and therefore they cry out, saying: ‘We shall go and sacrifice to our God.’

{5:9} Opprimantur operibus, et expleant ea: ut non acquiescant verbis mendacibus.
{5:9} They shall be oppressed with works, and these shall occupy them, so that they may not agree to lying words.”

{5:10} Igitur egressi præfecti operum et exactores, ad populum dixerunt: Sic dicit Pharao: Non do vobis paleas:
{5:10} And so the overseers of the works and the taskmasters went out and said to the people: “Thus says Pharaoh: I give you no chaff.

{5:11} ite, et colligite sicubi invenire poteritis, nec minuetur quidquam de opere vestro.
{5:11} Go, and collect it wherever you are able to find it. Neither will anything of your work be diminished.”

{5:12} Dispersusque est populus per omnem Terram Ægypti ad colligendas paleas.
{5:12} And the people were dispersed through all the land of Egypt, in order to gather straw.

{5:13} Præfecti quoque operum instabant, dicentes: Complete opus vestrum quotidie, ut prius facere solebatis quando dabantur vobis paleæ.
{5:13} Likewise, the overseers of the works pressured them, saying: “Complete your work each day, just as you were accustomed to do before, when straw was given to you.”

{5:14} Flagellatique sunt qui præerant operibus filiorum Israel, ab exactoribus Pharaonis, dicentibus: Quare non impletis mensuram laterum sicut prius, nec heri, nec hodie?
{5:14} And those who were first in the works of the sons of Israel were scourged by Pharaoh’s taskmasters, saying: “Why have you not filled the quota of bricks, neither yesterday, nor today, just as before?”

~ There seems to be several levels of leadership in the brick works. The overseers were in the highest position in this hierarchy, then the taskmasters, then the first among the sons of Israel. These leaders among the sons of Israel worked and also were responsible for overseeing the workers. They were ‘straw bosses,’ i.e. workers with an additional role of leadership over their fellow workers.

{5:15} Veneruntque præpositi filiorum Israel, et vociferati sunt ad Pharaonem dicentes: Cur ita agis contra servos tuos?
{5:15} And the first among the sons of Israel came, and they cried out to Pharaoh, saying: “Why do act against your servants in this way?

{5:16} Paleæ non dantur nobis, et lateres similiter imperantur: en famuli tui flagellis cædimur, et iniuste agitur contra populum tuum.
{5:16} Straw is not given to us, and yet the same amount of bricks is commanded. So we, your servants, are cut up by scourging, and injustice is done against your people.”

{5:17} Qui ait: Vacatis otio, et idcirco dicitis: Eamus, et sacrificemus Domino.
{5:17} And he said: “You are idle. And for this reason you say, ‘We shall go and sacrifice to the Lord.’

{5:18} Ite ergo, et operamini: paleæ non dabuntur vobis, et reddetis consuetum numerum laterum.
{5:18} Therefore, go and work. Straw will not be given to you, and you will return the customary number of bricks.”

{5:19} Videbantque se præpositi filiorum Israel in malo, eo quod diceretur eis: Non minuetur quidquam de lateribus per singulos dies.
{5:19} And the first among the sons of Israel saw themselves in a crisis, because it was said to them, “Nothing at all will be lessened from the bricks throughout each day.”

{5:20} Occurreruntque Moysi et Aaron, qui stabant ex adverso, egredientibus a Pharaone:
{5:20} And they met with Moses and Aaron, who stood opposite them as they departed from Pharaoh.

{5:21} et dixerunt ad eos: Videat Dominus et iudicet, quoniam fœtere fecistis odorem nostrum coram Pharaone et servis eius, et præbuistis ei gladium, ut occideret nos.
{5:21} And they said to them: “May the Lord see and judge, because you have caused our odor to become foul before Pharaoh and his servants, and you have provided him with a sword, in order to kill us.”

{5:22} Reversusque est Moyses ad Dominum, et ait: Domine, cur afflixisti populum istum? Quare misisti me?
{5:22} And Moses returned to the Lord, and he said: “Lord, why have you afflicted this people? Why have you sent me?

{5:23} Ex eo enim quo ingressus sum ad Pharaonem ut loquerer in nomine tuo, afflixit populum tuum: et non liberasti eos.
{5:23} For from the time that I entered to Pharaoh, so as to speak in your name, he has afflicted your people. And you have not freed them.”

[Exodus 6]
[Exodus 6]

{6:1} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen: Nunc videbis quæ facturus sim Pharaoni: per manum enim fortem dimittet eos, et in manu robusta eiiciet illos de terra sua.
{6:1} And the Lord said to Moses: “Now you will see what I shall do to Pharaoh. For through a strong hand he will release them, and by a mighty hand he will cast them from his land.”

{6:2} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen dicens: Ego Dominus
{6:2} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: “I am the Lord,

{6:3} qui apparui Abraham, Isaac, et Iacob in Deo omnipotente: et nomen meum ADONAI non indicavi eis.
{6:3} who appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as Almighty God. And I did not reveal to them my name: ADONAI.

{6:4} Pepigique fœdus cum eis, ut darem eis Terram Chanaan, terram peregrinationis eorum, in qua fuerunt advenæ.
{6:4} And I formed a covenant with them, in order to give them the land of Canaan, the land of their sojourning, in which they were newcomers.

{6:5} Ego audivi gemitum filiorum Israel, quo Ægyptii oppresserunt eos: et recordatus sum pacti mei.
{6:5} I have heard the groaning of the sons of Israel, with which the Egyptians have oppressed them. And I have remembered my covenant.

{6:6} Ideo dic filiis Israel: Ego Dominus qui educam vos de ergastulo Ægyptiorum, et eruam de servitute: ac redimam in brachio excelso, et iudiciis magnis.
{6:6} For this reason, say to the sons of Israel: I am the Lord who will lead you away from the work house of the Egyptians, and rescue you from servitude, and also redeem you with an exalted arm and great judgments.

{6:7} Et assumam vos mihi in populum, et ero vester Deus: et scietis quod ego sum Dominus Deus vester qui eduxerim vos de ergastulo Ægyptiorum:
{6:7} And I will take you to myself as my people, and I will be your God. And you will know that I am the Lord your God, who led you away from the work house of the Egyptians,

{6:8} et induxerim in terram, super quam levavi manum meam ut darem eam Abraham, Isaac, et Iacob: daboque illam vobis possidendam, ego Dominus.
{6:8} and who brought you into the land, over which I lifted up my hand in order to grant it to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. And I will grant it to you as a possession. I am the Lord.”

{6:9} Narravit ergo Moyses omnia filiis Israel: qui non acquieverunt ei propter angustiam spiritus, et opus durissimum.
{6:9} And so, Moses explained all these things to the sons of Israel, who did not agree with him, because of their anguish of spirit and very difficult work.

{6:10} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens:
{6:10} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

{6:11} Ingredere, et loquere ad Pharaonem regem Ægypti, ut dimittat filios Israel de terra sua.
{6:11} “Enter and speak to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, so that he may release the sons of Israel from his land.”

{6:12} Respondit Moyses coram Domino: Ecce filii Israel non audiunt me: et quo modo audiet Pharao, præsertim cum incircumcisus sim labiis?
{6:12} Moses responded in the sight the Lord: “Behold, the sons of Israel do not listen to me. And how will Pharaoh listen to me, especially since I am of uncircumcised lips?”

{6:13} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen et Aaron, et dedit mandatum ad filios Israel, et ad Pharaonem regem Ægypti ut educerent filios Israel de terra Ægypti.
{6:13} And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, and he gave them a commandment for the sons of Israel, and for Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, that they should lead the sons of Israel away from the land of Egypt.

{6:14} Isti sunt principes domorum per familias suas. Filii Ruben primogeniti Israelis: Henoch et Phallu, Hesron et Charmi.
{6:14} These are the leaders of the houses by their families. The sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel: Hanoch and Pallu, Hezron and Carmi.

{6:15} Hæ cognationes Ruben. Filii Simeon: Iamuel et Iamin, et Ahod, et Iachin, et Soar, et Saul filius Chananitidis: hæ progenies Simeon.
{6:15} These are the kindred of Reuben. The sons of Simeon: Jemuel and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite women. These are the progeny of Simeon.

{6:16} Et hæc nomina filiorum Levi per cognationes suas: Gerson et Caath et Merari. Anni autem vitæ Levi fuerunt centum triginta septem.
{6:16} And these are the names of the sons of Levi by their kindred: Gershon, and Kohath, and Merari. Now the years of the life of Levi were one hundred and thirty-seven.

{6:17} Filii Gerson: Lobni et Semei, per cognationes suas.
{6:17} The sons of Gershon: Libni and Shimei, by their kindred.

{6:18} Filii Caath: Amram, et Isaar, et Hebron et Oziel. Anni quoque vitæ Caath, centum triginta tres.
{6:18} The sons of Kohath: Amram, and Izhar, and Hebron and Uzziel. Likewise, the years of the life of Kohath were one hundred and thirty-three.

{6:19} Filii Merari: Moholi et Musi. Hæ cognationes Levi per familias suas.
{6:19} The sons of Merari: Mahli and Mushi. These are the kindred of Levi by their families.

{6:20} Accepit autem Amram uxorem Iochabed patruelem suam: quæ peperit ei Aaron et Moysen. Fueruntque anni vitæ Amram, centum triginta septem.
{6:20} Now Amram took as a wife Jochebed, his paternal aunt, who bore for him Aaron and Moses. And the years of the life of Amram were one hundred and thirty-seven.

{6:21} Filii quoque Isaar: Core, et Nepheg, et Zechri.
{6:21} Likewise, the sons of Izhar: Korah, and Nepheg, and Zichri.

{6:22} Filii quoque Oziel: Misael, et Elisaphan et Sethri.
{6:22} Likewise, the sons of Uzziel: Mishael, and Elzaphan, and Sithri.

{6:23} Accepit autem Aaron uxorem Elisabeth filiam Aminadab, sororem Nahason, quæ peperit ei Nadab, et Abiu, et Eleazar, et Ithamar.
{6:23} Now Aaron took as a wife Elizabeth, the daughter of Amminadab, sister of Nahshon, who bore for him Nadab, and Abihu, and Eleazar, and Ithamar.

{6:24} Filii quoque Core: Aser, et Elcana, et Abiasaph. Hæ sunt cognationes Coritarum.
{6:24} Likewise, the sons of Korah: Assir, and Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These are the kindred of the Korahites.

{6:25} At vero Eleazar filius Aaron accepit uxorem de filiabus Phutiel: quæ peperit ei Phinees. Hi sunt principes familiarum Leviticarum per cognationes suas.
{6:25} And truly Eleazar, the son of Aaron, took a wife from the daughters of Putiel. And she bore him Phinehas. These are the heads of the Levitical families by their kindred.

{6:26} Iste est Aaron et Moyses, quibus præcepit Dominus ut educerent filios Israel de Terra Ægypti per turmas suas.
{6:26} These are Aaron and Moses, whom the Lord instructed to lead the sons of Israel away from the land of Egypt by their companies.

{6:27} Hi sunt, qui loquuntur ad Pharaonem regem Ægypti, ut educant filios Israel de Ægypto: iste est Moyses et Aaron,
{6:27} These are those who speak to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, in order to lead the sons of Israel out of Egypt. These are Moses and Aaron,

{6:28} in die qua locutus est Dominus ad Moysen, in Terra Ægypti.
{6:28} in the day when the Lord spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt.

{6:29} Et locutus est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens: Ego Dominus: loquere ad Pharaonem regem Ægypti, omnia quæ ego loquor tibi.
{6:29} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: “I am the Lord. Speak to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, all that I speak to you.”

{6:30} Et ait Moyses coram Domino: En incircumcisus labiis sum, quo modo audiet me Pharao?
{6:30} And Moses said in the sight of the Lord: “Lo, I am of uncircumcised lips, how will Pharaoh listen to me?”

[Exodus 7]
[Exodus 7]

{7:1} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen: Ecce constitui te deum Pharaonis: et Aaron frater tuus erit propheta tuus.
{7:1} And the Lord said to Moses: “Behold, I have appointed you as the god of Pharaoh. And Aaron, your brother, will be your prophet.

{7:2} Tu loqueris ei omnia quæ mando tibi: et ille loquetur ad Pharaonem, ut dimittat filios Israel de terra sua.
{7:2} You will speak to him all that I command you. And he will speak to Pharaoh, so that he may release the sons of Israel from his land.

{7:3} Sed ego indurabo cor eius, et multiplicabo signa et ostenta mea in Terra Ægypti,
{7:3} But I will harden his heart, and I will multiply my signs and wonders in the land of Egypt,

{7:4} et non audiet vos: immittamque manum meam super Ægyptum, et educam exercitum et populum meum filios Israel de Terra Ægypti per iudicia maxima.
{7:4} and he will not listen to you. And I will send my hand over Egypt, and I will lead my army and my people, the sons of Israel, from the land of Egypt, through very great judgments.

{7:5} Et scient Ægyptii quia ego sum Dominus qui extenderim manum meam super Ægyptum, et eduxerim filios Israel de medio eorum.
{7:5} And the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord, who has extended my hand over Egypt, and who has led the sons of Israel from their midst.”

{7:6} Fecit itaque Moyses et Aaron sicut præceperat Dominus: ita egerunt.
{7:6} And so, Moses and Aaron did just as the Lord had instructed. And so it was done.

{7:7} Erat autem Moyses octoginta annorum, et Aaron octoginta trium, quando locuti sunt ad Pharaonem.
{7:7} Now Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three, when they spoke to Pharaoh.

{7:8} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen et Aaron:
{7:8} And the Lord said to Moses and Aaron:

{7:9} Cum dixerit vobis Pharao, Ostendite signa: dices ad Aaron: Tolle virgam tuam, et proiice eam coram Pharaone, ac vertetur in colubrum.
{7:9} “When Pharaoh will say to you, ‘Show signs,’ you shall say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff, and cast it down before Pharaoh, and it will be turned into a snake.’ ”

{7:10} Ingressi itaque Moyses et Aaron ad Pharaonem, fecerunt sicut præceperat Dominus. tulitque Aaron virgam coram Pharaone et servis eius, quæ versa est in colubrum.
{7:10} And so Moses and Aaron entered to Pharaoh, and they did just as the Lord had commanded. And Aaron took the staff in the sight of Pharaoh and his servants, and it was turned into a snake.

~ This passage uses ‘colubrum’ as opposed to the use of ‘serpens’ in Genesis.

{7:11} Vocavit autem Pharao sapientes et maleficos: et fecerunt etiam ipsi per incantationes Ægyptiacas et arcana quædam similiter.
{7:11} Then Pharaoh called the wise men and the sorcerers. And they also, by Egyptian incantations and certain secrets, did similarly.

~ The word ‘maleficos’ refers to ancient sorcerers or magicians, but it also implies that they were evil, using ‘black magic’ or the like. So Pharaoh called in those who were wise, and even those who were evil doers, he did not care which.

{7:12} Proieceruntque singuli virgas suas, quæ versæ sunt in dracones: sed devoravit virga Aaron virgas eorum.
{7:12} And each one cast down their staffs, and they were turned into serpents. But the staff of Aaron devoured their staffs.

{7:13} Induratumque est cor Pharaonis, et non audivit eos, sicut præceperat Dominus.
{7:13} And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had instructed.

{7:14} Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen: Ingravatum est cor Pharaonis, non vult dimittere populum.
{7:14} Then the Lord said to Moses: “The heart of Pharaoh has been hardened; he is not willing to release the people.

{7:15} Vade ad eum mane, ecce egredietur ad aquas: et stabis in occursum eius super ripam fluminis: et virgam, quæ conversa est in draconem, tolles in manu tua.
{7:15} Go to him in the morning; behold, he will go out to the waters. And you will stand to meet him above the bank of the river. And you will take, in your hand, the staff that was turned into a serpent.

{7:16} Dicesque ad eum: Dominus Deus Hebræorum misit me ad te, dicens: Dimitte populum meum ut sacrificet mihi in deserto: et usque ad præsens audire noluisti.
{7:16} And you will say to him: ‘The Lord God of the Hebrews sent me to you, saying: Release my people in order to sacrifice to me in the desert. And even until the present time, you were not willing to listen.

{7:17} Hæc igitur dicit Dominus: In hoc scies quod sim Dominus: ecce percutiam virga, quæ in manu mea est, aquam fluminis, et vertetur in sanguinem.
{7:17} Therefore, thus says the Lord: In this you will know that I am the Lord. Behold, I will strike, with the staff that is in my hand, the water of the river, and it will be turned into blood.

{7:18} Pisces quoque, qui sunt in fluvio, morientur, et computrescent aquæ, et affligentur Ægyptii bibentes aquam fluminis.
{7:18} Also, the fishes that are in the river will die, and the waters will be polluted, and the Egyptians will be afflicted when they drink the water of the river.’ ”

{7:19} Dixit quoque Dominus ad Moysen: Dic ad Aaron, Tolle virgam tuam, et extende manum tuam super aquas Ægypti, et super fluvios eorum, et rivos ac paludes, et omnes lacus aquarum, ut vertantur in sanguinem: et sit cruor in omni Terra Ægypti, tam in ligneis vasis quam in saxeis.
{7:19} The Lord also said to Moses: “Say to Aaron: ‘Take your staff; and extend your hand over the waters of Egypt, and over their rivers and streams and marshes and all the pools of waters, so that they may be turned into blood. And let there be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, as much in vessels of wood as in those of stone.’ ”

{7:20} Feceruntque Moyses et Aaron sicut præceperat Dominus: et elevans virgam percussit aquam fluminis coram Pharaone et servis eius: quæ versa est in sanguinem.
{7:20} And Moses and Aaron did just as the Lord had instructed. And lifting up the staff, he struck the water of the river in the sight of Pharaoh and his servants. And it was turned into blood.

{7:21} Et pisces, qui erant in flumine, mortui sunt: computruitque fluvius, et non poterant Ægyptii bibere aquam fluminis, et fuit sanguis in tota Terra Ægypti.
{7:21} And the fishes that were in the river died, and the river was polluted, and the Egyptians were not able to drink the water of the river, and there was blood throughout the entire land of Egypt.

{7:22} Feceruntque similiter malefici Ægyptiorum incantationibus suis: et induratum est cor Pharaonis, nec audivit eos, sicut præceperat Dominus.
{7:22} And the sorcerers of the Egyptians, with their incantations, did similarly. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had instructed.

{7:23} Avertitque se, et ingressus est domum suam, nec apposuit cor etiam hac vice.
{7:23} And he turned himself away, and he entered his house, neither did he apply his heart to this turn of events.

{7:24} Foderunt autem omnes Ægyptii per circuitum fluminis aquam ut biberent: non enim poterant bibere de aqua fluminis.
{7:24} Then all the Egyptians dug along the borders of the river for water to drink. For they were not able to drink from the water of the river.

{7:25} Impletique sunt septem dies, postquam percussit Dominus fluvium.
{7:25} And seven days were completed, after the Lord struck the river.

[Exodus 8]
[Exodus 8]

{8:1} Dixit quoque Dominus ad Moysen: Ingredere ad Pharaonem, et dices ad eum: Hæc dicit Dominus: Dimitte populum meum, ut sacrificet mihi:
{8:1} The Lord also said to Moses: “Enter to Pharaoh, and you will say to him: ‘Thus says the Lord: Release my people in order to sacrifice to me.

{8:2} sin autem nolueris dimittere, ecce ego percutiam omnes terminos tuos ranis.
{8:2} But if you are not willing to release them, behold, I will strike all your coasts with frogs.

{8:3} Et ebulliet fluvius ranis: quæ ascendent, et ingredientur domum tuam, et cubiculum lectuli tui, et super stratum tuum, et in domos servorum tuorum, et in populum tuum, et in furnos tuos, et in reliquias ciborum tuorum:
{8:3} And the river will seethe with frogs, which will go up and enter into your house, and your bedroom, and upon your bed, and into the houses of your servants and your people, and into your ovens, and into the remains of your foods.

{8:4} et ad te, et ad populum tuum, et ad omnes servos tuos intrabunt ranæ.
{8:4} And to you, and to your people, and to all your servants, the frogs will enter.’ ”

{8:5} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen: Dic ad Aaron: Extende manum tuam super fluvios ac super rivos et paludes, et educ ranas super Terram Ægypti.
{8:5} And the Lord said to Moses: “Say to Aaron: ‘Extend your hand over the rivers, and also over the streams and the marshes, and bring forth frogs over the land of Egypt.’ ”

{8:6} Et extendit Aaron manum super aquas Ægypti, et ascenderunt ranæ, operueruntque Terram Ægypti.
{8:6} And Aaron extended his hand over the waters of Egypt, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.

{8:7} Fecerunt autem et malefici per incantationes suas similiter, eduxeruntque ranas super Terram Ægypti.
{8:7} Then the sorcerers also, by their incantations, did similarly, and they brought forth frogs upon the land of Egypt.

{8:8} Vocavit autem Pharao Moysen et Aaron, et dixit eis: Orate Dominum ut auferat ranas a me et a populo meo: et dimittam populum ut sacrificet Domino.
{8:8} But Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron, and he said to them: “Pray to the Lord, so as to take away the frogs from me and from my people. And I will release the people, so as to sacrifice to the Lord.”

{8:9} Dixitque Moyses ad Pharaonem: Constitue mihi quando deprecer pro te, et pro servis tuis, et pro populo tuo, ut abigantur ranæ a te et a domo tua et a servis tuis et a populo tuo: et tantum in flumine remaneant.
{8:9} And Moses said to Pharaoh: “Appoint for me a time, when I should petition on behalf of you, and your servants, and your people, so that the frogs may be driven away from you, and from your house, and from your servants, and from your people, and so that they may remain only in the river.”

{8:10} Qui respondit: Cras. At ille: Iuxta, inquit, verbum tuum faciam: ut scias quoniam non est sicut Dominus Deus noster.
{8:10} And he responded, “Tomorrow.” Then he said, “I will act according to your word, so that you may know that there is no one like the Lord our God.

{8:11} Et recedent ranæ a te, et a domo tua, et a servis tuis, et a populo tuo: et tantum in flumine remanebunt.
{8:11} And the frogs will withdraw from you, and from your house, and from your servants, and from your people. And they will remain only in the river.”

{8:12} Egressique sunt Moyses et Aaron a Pharaone: et clamavit Moyses ad Dominum pro sponsione ranarum quam condixerat Pharaoni.
{8:12} And Moses and Aaron departed from Pharaoh. And Moses cried out to the Lord on behalf of the promise that he had made to Pharaoh concerning the frogs.

{8:13} Fecitque Dominus iuxta verbum Moysi: et mortuæ sunt ranæ de domibus, et de villis, et de agris.
{8:13} And the Lord acted according to the word of Moses. And the frogs died out of the houses, and out of the villages, and out of the fields.

{8:14} Congregaveruntque eas in immensos aggeres, et computruit terra.
{8:14} And they gathered them together into immense piles, and the land was polluted.

{8:15} Videns autem Pharao quod data esset requies, ingravavit cor suum, et non audivit eos, sicut præceperat Dominus.
{8:15} Then Pharaoh, seeing that relief had been provided, hardened his own heart, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had instructed.

{8:16} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen: Loquere ad Aaron: Extende virgam tuam, et percute pulverem terræ: et sint sciniphes in universa Terra Ægypti.
{8:16} And the Lord said to Moses: “Say to Aaron: ‘Extend your staff and strike the dust of the earth. And let there be stinging insects throughout the entire the land of Egypt.’ ”

~ The word ‘sciniphes’ refers to a type of stinging insect. It is often translated somewhat inaccurately as ‘gnats.’

{8:17} Feceruntque ita. Et extendit Aaron manum, virgam tenens: percussitque pulverem terræ, et facti sunt sciniphes in hominibus, et in iumentis: omnis pulvis terræ versus est in sciniphes per totam Terram Ægypti.
{8:17} And they did so. And Aaron extended his hand, holding the staff, and he struck the dust of the earth, and there came stinging insects upon men and upon beasts. All the dust of the earth was turned into stinging insects through all the land of Egypt.

{8:18} Feceruntque similiter malefici incantationibus suis, ut educerent sciniphes, et non potuerunt: erantque sciniphes tam in hominibus quam in iumentis.
{8:18} And the sorcerers, with their incantations, did similarly, in order to bring forth stinging insects, but they were not able. And there were stinging insects, as much on men as on beasts.

{8:19} Et dixerunt malefici ad Pharaonem: Digitus Dei est hic. Induratumque est cor Pharaonis, et non audivit eos sicut præceperat Dominus.
{8:19} And the sorcerers said to Pharaoh: “This is the finger of God.” And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord had instructed.

{8:20} Dixit quoque Dominus ad Moysen: Consurge diluculo, et sta coram Pharaone: egredietur enim ad aquas: et dices ad eum: Hæc dicit Dominus: Dimitte populum meum ut sacrificet mihi.
{8:20} The Lord also said to Moses: “Arise at first light, and stand in the sight of Pharaoh, for he will go out to the waters. And you will say to him: ‘Thus says the Lord: Release my people to sacrifice to me.

{8:21} Quod si non dimiseris eum, ecce ego immittam in te, et in servos tuos, et in populum tuum, et in domos tuas omne genus muscarum: et implebuntur domus Ægyptiorum muscis diversi generis, et universa terra in qua fuerint.
{8:21} But if you will not release them, behold, I will send upon you, and upon your servants, and upon your people, and into your houses, diverse kinds of flies. And the houses of the Egyptians will be filled with diverse kinds of flies, as well as the whole land in which they will be.

{8:22} Faciamque mirabilem in die illa Terram Gessen, in qua populus meus est, ut non sint ibi muscæ: et scias quoniam ego Dominus in medio terræ.
{8:22} And in that day, I will cause a miracle in the land of Goshen, where my people are, so that flies will not be there. And you will know that I am the Lord in the midst of the earth.

{8:23} Ponamque divisionem inter populum meum, et populum tuum: cras erit signum istud.
{8:23} And I will set a division between my people and your people. Tomorrow this sign will be.’ ”

{8:24} Fecitque Dominus ita. Et venit musca gravissima in domos Pharaonis et servorum eius, et in omnem Terram Ægypti: corruptaque est terra ab huiuscemodi muscis.
{8:24} And the Lord did so. And there came very grievous flies into the houses of Pharaoh and of his servants, and into all the land of Egypt. And the land was polluted, in this way, by the flies.

{8:25} Vocavitque Pharao Moysen et Aaron, et ait eis: Ite et sacrificate Deo vestro in terra hac.
{8:25} And Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron, and he said to them, “Go and sacrifice to your God in this land.”

{8:26} Et ait Moyses: Non potest ita fieri: abominationes enim Ægyptiorum immolabimus Domino Deo nostro: quod si mactaverimus ea quæ colunt Ægyptii coram eis, lapidibus nos obruent.
{8:26} And Moses said: “It cannot be so. For we will immolate the abominations of the Egyptians to the Lord our God. For if we slaughter those things which the Egyptians worship, in their presence, they will stone us.

{8:27} Viam trium dierum pergemus in solitudinem: et sacrificabimus Domino Deo nostro, sicut præcepit nobis.
{8:27} We will sojourn three days’ journey into the wilderness. And we will sacrifice to the Lord our God, just as he has instructed us.”

{8:28} Dixitque Pharao: Ego dimittam vos ut sacrificetis Domino Deo vestro in deserto: verumtamen longius ne abeatis, rogate pro me.
{8:28} And Pharaoh said: “I will release you in order to sacrifice to the Lord your God in the desert. Yet you may only go so far. Petition for me.”

{8:29} At ait Moyses: Egressus a te, orabo Dominum: et recedet musca a Pharaone, et a servis suis, et a populo eius cras: verumtamen noli ultra fallere, ut non dimittas populum sacrificare Domino.
{8:29} And Moses said: “After departing from you, I will pray to the Lord. And the flies will withdraw from Pharaoh, and from his servants, and from his people, tomorrow. Yet do not be willing to deceive any longer, so that you would not release the people to sacrifice to the Lord.”

{8:30} Egressusque Moyses a Pharaone, oravit Dominum.
{8:30} And Moses, departing from Pharaoh, prayed to the Lord.

{8:31} Qui fecit iuxta verbum illius: et abstulit muscas a Pharaone, et a servis suis, et a populo eius: non superfuit ne una quidem.
{8:31} And he acted according to his word. And he took away the flies from Pharaoh, and from his servants, and from his people. There was not even one left behind.

{8:32} Et ingravatum est cor Pharaonis, ita ut nec hac quidem vice dimitteret populum.
{8:32} And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, so that, even at this turn, he would not release the people.

[Exodus 9]
[Exodus 9]

{9:1} Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen: Ingredere ad Pharaonem, et loquere ad eum: Hæc dicit Dominus Deus Hebræorum: Dimitte populum meum ut sacrificet mihi.
{9:1} Then the Lord said to Moses: “Enter to Pharaoh, and say to him: ‘Thus says the Lord God of the Hebrews: Release my people, to sacrifice to me.

{9:2} Quod si adhuc renuis, et retines eos:
{9:2} But if you still refuse, and you retain them,

{9:3} ecce manus mea erit super agros tuos: et super equos, et asinos, et camelos, et boves, et oves, pestis valde gravis.
{9:3} behold, my hand will be over your fields. And a very grievous pestilence will be upon the horses, and the donkeys, and the camels, and the oxen, and the sheep.

{9:4} Et faciet Dominus mirabile inter possessiones Israel, et possessiones Ægyptiorum, ut nihil omnino pereat ex eis quæ pertinent ad filios Israel.
{9:4} And the Lord will cause a miracle between the possessions of Israel and the possessions of the Egyptians, so that nothing at all will perish from those things which belong to the sons of Israel.”

{9:5} Constituitque Dominus tempus, dicens: Cras faciet Dominus verbum istud in terra.
{9:5} And the Lord appointed a time, saying: “Tomorrow, the Lord will accomplish this word in the land.”

{9:6} Fecit ergo Dominus verbum hoc altera die: mortuaque sunt omnia animantia Ægyptiorum: de animalibus vero filiorum Israel nihil omnino periit.
{9:6} Therefore, the Lord accomplished this word the next day. And all the animals of the Egyptians died. Yet truly, of the animals of the sons of Israel, nothing at all perished.

{9:7} Et misit Pharao ad videndum: nec erat quidquam mortuum de his quæ possidebat Israel. Ingravatumque est cor Pharaonis, et non dimisit populum.
{9:7} And Pharaoh sent to see; neither was there anything dead of those things that Israel possessed. And the heart of Pharaoh was hardened, and he did not release the people.

{9:8} Et dixit Dominus ad Moysen, et Aaron: Tollite plenas manus cineris de camino, et spargat illum Moyses in cælum coram Pharaone.
{9:8} And the Lord said to Moses and to Aaron: “Take handfuls of ashes from the oven, and let Moses sprinkle it into the air, in the sight of Pharaoh.

{9:9} Sitque pulvis super omnem Terram Ægypti: erunt enim in hominibus, et iumentis ulcera, et vesicæ turgentes in universa terra Ægypti.
{9:9} And let there be dust upon all the land of Egypt. For there will be sores and swelling pustules on men and on beasts, throughout the entire land of Egypt.”

{9:10} Tuleruntque cinerem de camino, et steterunt coram Pharaone, et sparsit illum Moyses in cælum: factaque sunt ulcera vesicarum turgentium in hominibus, et iumentis:
{9:10} And they took ashes from the oven, and they stood in the sight of Pharaoh, and Moses sprinkled it in the air. And there came sores with swelling pustules on men and on beasts.

{9:11} nec poterant malefici stare coram Moyse propter ulcera quæ in illis erant, et in omni Terra Ægypti:
{9:11} Neither could the sorcerers stand in the sight of Moses, because of the sores that were on them and on all the land of Egypt.

{9:12} Induravitque Dominus cor Pharaonis, et non audivit eos, sicut locutus est Dominus ad Moysen.
{9:12} And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he did not listen to them, just as the Lord said to Moses.

{9:13} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen: Mane consurge, et sta coram Pharaone, et dices ad eum: Hæc dicit Dominus Deus Hebræorum: Dimitte populum meum ut sacrificet mihi.
{9:13} And the Lord said to Moses: “Rise up in the morning, and stand in the sight of Pharaoh, and you will say to him: ‘Thus says the Lord God of the Hebrews: Release my people to sacrifice to me.

{9:14} Quia in hac vice mittam omnes plagas meas super cor tuum, et super servos tuos, et super populum tuum: ut scias quod non sit similis mei in omni terra.
{9:14} For at this turn, I will send all my plagues upon your heart, and upon your servants, and upon your people. So may you know that there is no one like me in all the earth.

{9:15} Nunc enim extendens manum percutiam te, et populum tuum peste, peribisque de terra.
{9:15} For now, extending my hand, I shall strike you and your people with pestilence, and you will perish from the earth.

{9:16} Idcirco autem posui te, ut ostendam in te fortitudinem meam, et narretur nomen meum in omni terra.
{9:16} But it was for this reason that I appointed you, so that I may reveal my strength by you, and so that my name may be described throughout all the earth.

{9:17} Adhuc retines populum meum: et non vis dimittere eum?
{9:17} Do you still retain my people, and are you still unwilling to release them?

{9:18} En pluam cras hac ipsa hora grandinem multam nimis, qualis non fuit in Ægypto a die qua fundata est, usque in præsens tempus.
{9:18} So then, tomorrow, at this same hour, I will rain down exceedingly great hail, such as has not been in Egypt from the day that it was founded, even until this present time.

{9:19} Mitte ergo iam nunc, et congrega iumenta tua, et omnia quæ habes in agro: homines enim, et iumenta, et universa quæ inventa fuerint foris, nec congregata de agris, cecideritque super ea grando, morientur.
{9:19} Therefore, send immediately and gather together your cattle, and all that you have in the field. For men and beasts, and all things that will be found outside, not gathered in from the fields, and on which the hail will fall, shall die.’ ”

{9:20} Qui timuit verbum Domini de servis Pharaonis, facit confugere servos suos, et iumenta in domos:
{9:20} He who feared the word of the Lord among the servants of Pharaoh caused his servants and cattle to flee together into the houses.

{9:21} qui autem neglexit sermonem Domini, dimisit servos suos, et iumenta in agris.
{9:21} But he who neglected the word of the Lord released his servants and cattle into the fields.

{9:22} Et dixit Dominus ad Moysen: Extende manum tuam in cælum, ut fiat grando in universa Terra Ægypti super homines, et super iumenta, et super omnem herbam agri in Terra Ægypti.
{9:22} And the Lord said to Moses: “Extend your hand into the sky, so that there may be hail in the entire land of Egypt, on men, and on beasts, and on every plant of the field in the land of Egypt.”

{9:23} Extenditque Moyses virgam in cælum, et Dominus dedit tonitrua, et grandinem, ac discurrentia fulgura super terram: pluitque Dominus grandinem super Terram Ægypti.
{9:23} And Moses extended his staff into the sky, and the Lord sent thunder and hail, and also lightning dashing across the earth. And the Lord rained down hail upon the land of Egypt.

{9:24} Et grando et ignis mista pariter ferebantur: tantæque fuit magnitudinis, quanta ante numquam apparuit in universa Terra Ægypti ex quo gens illa condita est.
{9:24} And the hail and intermingled fire drove on together. And it was of such magnitude as had never before been seen in the entire land of Egypt, from the time when that nation was formed.

{9:25} Et percussit grando in omni Terra Ægypti cuncta quæ fuerunt in agris, ab homine usque ad iumentum: cunctamque herbam agri percussit grando, et omne lignum regionis confregit.
{9:25} And the hail struck, throughout all the land of Egypt, everything that was in the fields, from man even to beast. And the hail struck down every plant of the field, and it broke every tree of the region.

{9:26} Tantum in Terra Gessen, ubi erant filii Israel, grando non cecidit.
{9:26} Only in the land of Goshen, where the sons of Israel were, did the hail not fall.

{9:27} Misitque Pharao, et vocavit Moysen et Aaron, dicens ad eos: Peccavi etiam nunc: Dominus iustus: ego et populus meus, impii.
{9:27} And Pharaoh sent and called Moses and Aaron, saying to them: “I have sinned even until now. The Lord is just. I and my people are impious.

{9:28} Orate Dominum ut desinant tonitrua Dei, et grando: ut dimittam vos, et nequaquam hic ultra maneatis.
{9:28} Pray to the Lord, so that the thundering of God and the hail may cease, so that I may release you, and so that you may by no means remain here any longer.”

{9:29} Ait Moyses: Cum egressus fuero de urbe, extendam palmas meas ad Dominum, et cessabunt tonitrua, et grando non erit: ut scias quia Domini est terra:
{9:29} Moses said: “When I have departed from the city, I will extend my hands to the Lord, and the thunders will cease, and the hail will not be, so that you may know that the earth belongs to the Lord.

{9:30} novi autem quod et tu, et servi tui necdum timeatis Dominum Deum.
{9:30} But I know that both you and your servants do not yet fear the Lord God.”

{9:31} Linum ergo, et hordeum læsum est, eo quod hordeum esset virens, et linum iam folliculos germinaret:
{9:31} And so, the flax and the barley were damaged, because the barley was growing, and the flax was already developing grains.

{9:32} triticum autem, et far non sunt læsa, quia serotina erant.
{9:32} But the wheat and the spelt were not damaged, because they were late.

{9:33} Egressusque Moyses a Pharaone ex urbe, tetendit manus ad Dominum: et cessaverunt tonitrua et grando, nec ultra stillavit pluvia super terram.
{9:33} And Moses, departing from Pharaoh out of the city, reached out his hands toward the Lord. And the thunders and hail ceased, neither did there drop any more rain upon the land.

{9:34} Videns autem Pharao quod cessasset pluvia, et grando et tonitrua, auxit peccatum:
{9:34} Then Pharaoh, seeing that the rain, and the hail, and the thunders had ceased, added to his sin.

{9:35} et ingravatum est cor eius, et servorum illius, et induratum nimis: nec dimisit filios Israel, sicut præceperat Dominus per manum Moysi.
{9:35} And his heart was weighed down, along with that of his servants, and it was hardened exceedingly. Neither did he release the sons of Israel, just as the Lord had instructed by the hand of Moses.

[Exodus 10]
[Exodus 10]

{10:1} Et dixit Dominus ad Moysen: Ingredere ad Pharaonem: ego enim induravi cor eius, et servorum illius: ut faciam signa mea hæc in eo,
{10:1} And the Lord said to Moses: “Enter to Pharaoh. For I have hardened his heart, and that of his servants, so that I may accomplish these, my signs, in him,

{10:2} et narres in auribus filii tui, et nepotum tuorum, quoties contriverim Ægyptios, et signa mea fecerim in eis: et sciatis quia ego Dominus.
{10:2} and so that you may describe to the ears of your sons and your grandsons how often I opposed the Egyptians and wrought my signs among them, and so that you may know that I am the Lord.”

{10:3} Introierunt ergo Moyses et Aaron ad Pharaonem, et dixerunt ei: Hæc dicit Dominus Deus Hebræorum: Usquequo non vis subiici mihi? Dimitte populum meum, ut sacrificet mihi.
{10:3} Therefore, Moses and Aaron entered to Pharaoh, and they said to him: “Thus says the Lord God of the Hebrews: How long will you be unwilling to be subject to me? Release my people to sacrifice to me.

{10:4} Sin autem resistis, et non vis dimittere eum: ecce ego inducam cras locustam in fines tuos:
{10:4} But if you resist, and you are unwilling to release them, behold, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your borders.

~ Note that ‘fines’ is used here to mean ‘parts,’ not ‘ends,’ just as in some of the Psalms (e.g. Psalm 4:1).

{10:5} quæ operiat superficiem terræ, ne quidquam eius appareat, sed comedatur quod residuum fuerit grandini. Corrodet enim omnia ligna quæ germinant in agris.
{10:5} And they shall cover the face of the earth, lest any part of it be seen. Yes, and what remains from the hail shall be eaten. For they will gnaw away all the trees that spring up in the fields.

{10:6} Et implebunt domos tuas, et servorum tuorum, et omnium Ægyptiorum: quantam non viderunt patres tui, et avi, ex quo orti sunt super terram, usque in præsentem diem. Avertitque se, et egressus est a Pharaone.
{10:6} And they will fill your houses, and those of your servants and of all the Egyptians: so many as your fathers and ancestors have not seen, from the time that they rose up over the earth, even until this present day.” And he turned himself away, and he departed from Pharaoh.

{10:7} Dixerunt autem servi Pharaonis ad eum: Usquequo patiemur hoc scandalum: dimitte homines, ut sacrificent Domino Deo suo. Nonne vides quod perierit Ægyptus?
{10:7} Then the servants of Pharaoh said to him: “How long must we endure this scandal? Release the men, in order to sacrifice to the Lord their God. Do you not see that Egypt is perishing?”

{10:8} Revocaveruntque Moysen, et Aaron ad Pharaonem: qui dixit eis: Ite, sacrificate Domino Deo vestro: quinam sunt qui ituri sunt?
{10:8} And they called back Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh, who said to them: “Go, sacrifice to the Lord your God. Who are they who would go?”

{10:9} Ait Moyses: Cum parvulis nostris, et senioribus pergemus, cum filiis et filiabus, cum ovibus et armentis: est enim sollemnitas Domini Dei nostri.
{10:9} Moses said: “We will travel with our little ones and our elderly, with our sons and daughters, with our sheep and herds. For it is a solemnity of the Lord our God.”

{10:10} Et respondit Pharao: Sic Dominus sit vobiscum, quo modo ego dimittam vos, et parvulos vestros, cui dubium est quod pessime cogitetis?
{10:10} And Pharaoh responded: “So let the Lord be with you. But if I were to release you and your little ones, who would doubt that you intend some great wickedness?

{10:11} Non fiet ita, sed ite tantum viri, et sacrificate Domino: hoc enim et ipsi petistis. Statimque eiecti sunt de conspectu Pharaonis.
{10:11} It will not be so. However, go only with the men, and sacrifice to the Lord. For this, too, is what you yourselves requested.” And immediately they were cast out from the sight of Pharaoh.

{10:12} Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen: Extende manum tuam super Terram Ægypti ad locustam, ut ascendat super eam, et devoret omnem herbam quæ residua fuerit grandini.
{10:12} Then the Lord said to Moses: “Extend your hand over the land of Egypt, toward the locusts, so that they may rise up over it, and devour every plant which remains from the hail.”

{10:13} Et extendit Moyses virgam super terram Ægypti: et Dominus induxit ventum urentem tota die illa, et nocte: et mane facto, ventus urens levavit locustas.
{10:13} And Moses extended his staff over the land of Egypt. And the Lord brought a burning wind all that day and night. And when morning came, the burning wind lifted up the locusts.

{10:14} Quæ ascenderunt super universam Terram Ægypti: et sederunt in cunctis finibus Ægyptiorum innumerabiles, quales ante illud tempus non fuerant, nec postea futuræ sunt.
{10:14} And they ascended over the entire land of Egypt. And they settled into all the parts of the Egyptians: innumerable, such as had not been before that time, nor ever would be thereafter.

{10:15} Operueruntque universam superficiem terræ, vastantes omnia. Devorata est igitur herba terræ, et quidquid pomorum in arboribus fuit, quæ grando dimiserat: nihilque omnino virens relictum est in lignis, et in herbis terræ, in cuncta Ægypto.
{10:15} And they covered the entire face of the land, laying waste to all things. And the plants of the land were devoured, along with whatever fruits were on the trees, which the hail had left behind. And nothing at all of the greenery remained on the trees or on the plants of the earth in all of Egypt.

{10:16} Quam ob rem festinus Pharao vocavit Moysen et Aaron, et dixit eis: Peccavi in Dominum Deum vestrum, et in vos.
{10:16} For this reason, Pharaoh hurriedly called Moses and Aaron, and he said to them: “I have sinned against the Lord your God, and against you.

{10:17} Sed nunc dimittite peccatum mihi etiam hac vice, et rogate Dominum Deum vestrum, ut auferat a me mortem istam.
{10:17} But now, release me from my sin even this time, and petition the Lord your God, so that he may take this death away from me.”

{10:18} Egressusque Moyses de conspectu Pharaonis, oravit Dominum.
{10:18} And Moses, departing from the sight of Pharaoh, prayed to the Lord.

{10:19} Qui flare fecit ventum ab occidente vehementissimum, et arreptam locustam proiecit in Mare Rubrum: non remansit ne una quidem in cunctis finibus Ægypti.
{10:19} And he caused a very strong wind to blow from the west, and, seizing the locusts, it cast them into the Red Sea. There remained not so much as one in all the parts of Egypt.

{10:20} Et induravit Dominus cor Pharaonis, nec dimisit filios Israel.
{10:20} And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh; neither did he release the sons of Israel.

{10:21} Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen: Extende manum tuam in cælum: et sint tenebræ super Terram Ægypti tam densæ, ut palpari queant.
{10:21} Then the Lord said to Moses: “Extend your hand into the sky. And let there be a darkness over the land of Egypt, so dense that they may be able to feel it.”

{10:22} Extenditque Moyses manum in cælum: et factæ sunt tenebræ horribiles in universa Terra Ægypti tribus diebus.
{10:22} And Moses extended his hand into the sky. And there came a horrible darkness in the entire land of Egypt for three days.

~ This historical event was a foreshadowing of the Three Days of Darkness that will occur in late 2039 or early 2040 A.D.

{10:23} Nemo vidit fratrem suum, nec movit se de loco in quo erat: ubicumque autem habitabant filii Israel, lux erat.
{10:23} No one saw his brother, nor moved himself out of the place where he was. But wherever the sons of Israel were living, there was light.

{10:24} Vocavitque Pharao Moysen et Aaron, et dixit eis: Ite, sacrificate Domino: oves tantum vestræ, et armenta remaneant, parvuli vestri eant vobiscum.
{10:24} And Pharaoh called Moses and Aaron, and he said to them: “Go, sacrifice to the Lord. Only let your sheep and herds remain behind. Your little ones may go with you.”

{10:25} Ait Moyses: Hostias quoque et holocausta dabis nobis, quæ offeramus Domino Deo nostro.
{10:25} Moses said: “You must also permit us victims and holocausts, which we may offer to the Lord our God.

{10:26} Cuncti greges pergent nobiscum: non remanebit ex eis ungula: quæ necessaria sunt in cultum Domini Dei nostri: præsertim cum ignoremus quid debeat immolari, donec ad ipsum locum perveniamus.
{10:26} All the flocks shall travel with us. Not one hoof of them shall remain behind. For they are necessary for the worship of the Lord our God, especially since we do not know what ought to be immolated, until we arrive at the very place.”

{10:27} Induravit autem Dominus cor Pharaonis, et noluit dimittere eos.
{10:27} But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, and he was not willing to release them.

{10:28} Dixitque Pharao ad Moysen: Recede a me, et cave ne ultra videas faciem meam: quocumque die apparueris mihi, morieris.
{10:28} And Pharaoh said to Moses: “Withdraw from me, and beware that you no longer see my face. On whatever day you will appear in my sight, you shall die.”

{10:29} Respondit Moyses: Ita fiet ut locutus es, non videbo ultra faciem tuam.
{10:29} Moses responded: “So be it, just as you have said. I will no longer see your face.”

[Exodus 11]
[Exodus 11]

{11:1} Et dixit Dominus ad Moysen: Adhuc una plaga tangam Pharaonem et Ægyptum, et post hæc dimittet vos, et exire compellet.
{11:1} And the Lord said to Moses: “I will touch Pharaoh and Egypt with one more plague, and after these things he will release you, and he will compel you to go out.

{11:2} Dices ergo omni plebi ut postulet vir ab amico suo, et mulier a vicina sua vasa argentea et aurea.
{11:2} Therefore, you will tell all the people to ask, a man of his friend, and a woman of her neighbor, for vessels of silver and of gold.

{11:3} Dabit autem Dominus gratiam populo suo coram Ægyptiis. Fuitque Moyses vir magnus valde in Terra Ægypti coram servis Pharaonis, et omni populo.
{11:3} Then the Lord will grant favor to his people in the sight of the Egyptians.” And Moses was a very great man in the land of Egypt, in the sight of the servants of Pharaoh and of all the people.

{11:4} Et ait: Hæc dicit Dominus: Media nocte egrediar in Ægyptum:
{11:4} And he said: “Thus says the Lord: ‘In the middle of the night I will enter into Egypt.

{11:5} et morietur omne primogenitum in Terra Ægyptiorum, a primogenito Pharaonis qui sedet in solio eius, usque ad primogenitum ancillæ quæ est ad molam, et omnia primogenita iumentorum.
{11:5} And every firstborn in the land of the Egyptians shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the handmaid, who is at the millstone, and all the firstborn of the beasts of burden.

{11:6} Eritque clamor magnus in universa Terra Ægypti, qualis nec ante fuit, nec postea futurus est.
{11:6} And there will be a great outcry throughout the entire land of Egypt, such as has not been before, nor ever will be afterward.

{11:7} Apud omnes autem filios Israel non mutiet canis ab homine usque ad pecus: ut sciatis quanto miraculo dividat Dominus Ægyptios et Israel.
{11:7} But among all the sons of Israel there shall not be even a mutter from a dog, from man, even to cattle, so that you may know how miraculously the Lord divides the Egyptians from Israel.’

{11:8} Descendentque omnes servi tui isti ad me, et adorabunt me, dicentes: Egredere tu, et omnis populus qui subiectus est tibi: post hæc egrediemur.
{11:8} And all these, your servants, shall descend to me and shall reverence me, by saying: ‘Depart, you and all the people who are subject to you.’ After these things, we will depart.”

{11:9} Et exivit a Pharaone iratus nimis. Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen: Non audiet vos Pharao ut multa signa fiant in Terra Ægypti.
{11:9} And he went out from Pharaoh exceedingly angry. Then the Lord said to Moses: “Pharaoh will not listen to you, so that many signs may be accomplished in the land of Egypt.”

{11:10} Moyses autem et Aaron fecerunt omnia ostenta quæ scripta sunt, coram Pharaone. Et induravit Dominus cor Pharaonis, nec dimisit filios Israel de terra sua.
{11:10} Now Moses and Aaron did all the wonders that are written, in the sight of Pharaoh. And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh; neither did he release the sons of Israel from his land.

[Exodus 12]
[Exodus 12]

{12:1} Dixit quoque Dominus ad Moysen, et Aaron in Terra Ægypti:
{12:1} The Lord also said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt:

{12:2} Mensis iste, vobis principium mensium: primus erit in mensibus anni.
{12:2} “This month will be for you the beginning of the months. It will be first in the months of the year.

{12:3} Loquimini ad universum cœtum filiorum Israel, et dicite eis: Decima die mensis huius tollat unusquisque agnum per familias et domos suas.
{12:3} Speak to the entire assembly of the sons of Israel, and say to them: On the tenth day of this month, let everyone take a lamb, by their families and houses.

{12:4} Sin autem minor est numerus ut sufficere possit ad vescendum agnum, assumet vicinum suum qui iunctus est domui suæ, iuxta numerum animarum quæ sufficere possunt ad esum agni.
{12:4} But if the number is less than may suffice to be able to consume the lamb, he shall accept his neighbor, who has been joined with his house according to the number of souls that may suffice to be able to eat the lamb.

{12:5} Erit autem agnus absque macula, masculus, anniculus: iuxta quem ritum tolletis et hœdum.
{12:5} And it shall be a lamb without blemish, a one year old male. According to this rite, you shall also take a young goat.

{12:6} Et servabitis eum usque ad quartam decimam diem mensis huius: immolabitque eum universa multitudo filiorum Israel ad vesperam.
{12:6} And you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month. And the entire multitude of the sons of Israel shall immolate it toward evening.

{12:7} Et sument de sanguine eius, ac ponent super utrumque postem, et in superliminaribus domorum, in quibus comedent illum.
{12:7} And they shall take from its blood, and place it on both the door posts and the upper threshold of the houses, in which they will consume it.

~ The word ‘superliminaribus’ is translated more literally as ‘upper threshold.’ It can also be translated as ‘lintels’ or ‘upper door posts.’

{12:8} Et edent carnes nocte illa assas igni, et azymos panes cum lactucis agrestibus.
{12:8} And that night they shall eat the flesh, roasted by fire, and unleavened bread with wild lettuce.

{12:9} Non comedetis ex eo crudum quid, nec coctum aqua, sed tantum assum igni: caput cum pedibus eius et intestinis vorabitis.
{12:9} You shall not consume anything from it raw, nor boiled in water, but only roasted by fire. You shall devour the head with its feet and entrails.

{12:10} Nec remanebit quidquam ex eo usque mane. si quid residuum fuerit, igne comburetis.
{12:10} Neither shall there remain anything from it until morning. If anything will have been left over, you shall burn it with fire.

{12:11} Sic autem comedetis illum: Renes vestros accingetis, et calceamenta habebitis in pedibus, tenentes baculos in manibus, et comedetis festinanter: est enim Phase (id est, transitus) Domini.
{12:11} Now you shall consume it in this way: You shall gird your waist, and you shall have shoes on your feet, holding staves in your hands, and you shall consume it in haste. For it is the Passover (that is, the Crossing) of the Lord.

{12:12} Et transibo per Terram Ægypti nocte illa, percutiamque omne primogenitum in Terra Ægypti ab homine usque ad pecus: et in cunctis diis Ægypti faciam iudicia, ego Dominus.
{12:12} And I will cross through the land of Egypt that night, and I will strike down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from man, even to cattle. And I will bring judgments against all the gods of Egypt. I am the Lord.

{12:13} Erit autem sanguis vobis in signum in ædibus in quibus eritis: et videbo sanguinem, et transibo vos: nec erit in vobis plaga disperdens quando percussero Terram Ægypti.
{12:13} But the blood will be for you as a sign in the buildings where you will be. And I will see the blood, and I will pass over you. And the plague will not be with you to destroy, when I strike the land of Egypt.

{12:14} Habebitis autem hunc diem in monimentum: et celebrabitis eam sollemnem Domino in generationibus vestris cultu sempiterno.
{12:14} Then you shall have this day as a memorial, and you shall celebrate it as a solemnity to the Lord, in your generations, as an everlasting devotion.

{12:15} Septem diebus azyma comedetis: in die primo non erit fermentum in domibus vestris: quicumque comederit fermentatum, peribit anima illa de Israel, a primo die usque ad diem septimum.
{12:15} For seven days, you shall eat unleavened bread. On the first day there shall be no leaven in your houses. Whoever will consume anything leavened, from the first day, even until the seventh day, that soul shall perish from Israel.

{12:16} Dies prima erit sancta atque sollemnis, et dies septima eadem festivitate venerabilis: nihil operis facietis in eis, exceptis his, quæ ad vescendum pertinent.
{12:16} The first day shall be holy and solemn, and the seventh day shall be venerated with the same festivity. You shall do no work in these days, except that which pertains to the eating.

{12:17} Et observabitis azyma: in eadem enim ipsa die educam exercitum vestrum de Terra Ægypti, et custodietis diem istum in generationes vestras ritu perpetuo.
{12:17} And you shall observe the feast of unleavened bread. For on this same day, I will lead your army out of the land of Egypt, and you shall keep this day, in your generations, as a perpetual ritual.

{12:18} Primo mense, quartadecima die mensis ad vesperam comedetis azyma usque ad diem vigesimam primam eiusdem mensis ad vesperam.
{12:18} In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, toward evening, you shall consume the unleavened bread, until the twenty-first day of the same month, toward evening.

{12:19} Septem diebus fermentum non invenietur in domibus vestris: qui comederit fermentatum, peribit anima eius de cœtu Israel, tam de advenis quam de indigenis terræ.
{12:19} For seven days, there shall not be found leaven in your houses. Whoever will eat leaven, his soul will perish from the assembly of Israel, as much with the newcomers as with the natives of the land.

{12:20} Omne fermentatum non comedetis: in cunctis habitaculis vestris edetis azyma.
{12:20} You shall not consume any leaven. In all your dwelling places, you shall eat unleavened bread.”

{12:21} Vocavit autem Moyses omnes seniores filiorum Israel, et dixit ad eos: Ite tollentes animal per familias vestras, et immolate Phase.
{12:21} Then Moses called all the elders of the sons of Israel, and he said to them: “Go, taking an animal by your families, and sacrifice the Passover.

{12:22} Fasciculumque hyssopi tingite in sanguine qui est in limine, et aspergite ex eo superliminare, et utrumque postem: nullus vestrum egrediatur ostium domus suæ usque mane.
{12:22} And dip a little bundle of hyssop in the blood which is at the entrance, and sprinkle the upper threshold with it, and both of the door posts. Let none of you go out of the door of his house until morning.

{12:23} Transibit enim Dominus percutiens Ægyptios: cumque viderit sanguinem in superliminari, et in utroque poste, transcendet ostium domus, et non sinet Percussorem ingredi domos vestras et lædere.
{12:23} For the Lord will cross through, striking the Egyptians. And when he will see the blood on the upper threshold, and on both the door posts, he will pass over the door of the house and not permit the Striker to enter into your houses or to do harm.

{12:24} Custodi verbum istud legitimum tibi et filiis tuis usque in æternum.
{12:24} You shall keep this word as a law for you and for your sons, forever.

{12:25} Cumque introieritis terram, quam Dominus daturus est vobis ut pollicitus est, observabitis ceremonias istas.
{12:25} And when you have entered into the land that the Lord will give to you, just as he has promised, you shall observe these ceremonies.

{12:26} Et cum dixerint vobis filii vestri: Quæ est ista religio?
{12:26} And when your sons will say to you, ‘What is the meaning of this religious observance?’

{12:27} dicetis eis: Victima transitus Domini est, quando transivit super domos filiorum Israel in Ægypto percutiens Ægyptios, et domos nostras liberans. Incurvatusque populus adoravit.
{12:27} You shall say to them: ‘It is the victim of the crossing of the Lord, when he passed over the houses of the sons of Israel in Egypt, striking the Egyptians, and freeing our houses.’ ” And the people, bowing down, worshipped.

{12:28} Et egressi filii Israel fecerunt sicut præceperat Dominus Moysi et Aaron.
{12:28} And the sons of Israel, departing, did just as the Lord had instructed Moses and Aaron.

{12:29} Factum est autem in noctis medio, percussit Dominus omne primogenitum in Terra Ægypti, a primogenito Pharaonis, qui in solio eius sedebat, usque ad primogenitum captivæ quæ erat in carcere, et omne primogenitum iumentorum.
{12:29} Then it happened, in the middle of the night: the Lord struck down every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the captive woman who was in prison, and all the firstborn of the cattle.

{12:30} Surrexitque Pharao nocte, et omnes servi eius, cunctaque Ægyptus: et ortus est clamor magnus in Ægypto: neque enim erat domus in qua non iaceret mortuus.
{12:30} And Pharaoh rose up in the night, and all his servants, and all of Egypt. And there arose a great outcry in Egypt. For there was not a house in which no one lay dead.

{12:31} Vocatisque Pharao, Moyse, et Aaron nocte, ait: Surgite et egredimini a populo meo, vos et filii Israel: ite, immolate Domino sicut dicitis.
{12:31} And Pharaoh, calling Moses and Aaron in the night, said: “Rise up and go forth from among my people, you and the sons of Israel. Go, sacrifice to the Lord, just as you say.

{12:32} Oves vestras et armenta assumite ut petieratis, et abeuntes benedicite mihi.
{12:32} Your sheep and herds take along with you, as you requested, and as you go away, bless me.”

{12:33} Urgebantque Ægyptii populum de terra exire velociter, dicentes: Omnes moriemur.
{12:33} And the Egyptians urged the people to go away from the land quickly, saying, “We will all die.”

{12:34} Tulit igitur populus conspersam farinam antequam fermentaretur: et ligans in palliis, posuit super humeros suos.
{12:34} Therefore, the people took bread dough before it was leavened. And tying it in their cloaks, they placed it on their shoulders.

~ The phrase ‘conspersam farinam’ refers to flour sprinkled with water, i.e. bread dough that has not risen.

{12:35} Feceruntque filii Israel sicut præceperat Moyses: et petierunt ab Ægyptiis vasa argentea et aurea, vestemque plurimam.
{12:35} And the sons of Israel did just as Moses had instructed. And they petitioned the Egyptians for vessels of silver and of gold, and very many garments.

{12:36} Dominus autem dedit gratiam populo coram Ægyptiis ut commodarent eis: et spoliaverunt Ægyptios.
{12:36} Then the Lord granted favor to the people in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they bestowed on them. And they despoiled the Egyptians.

{12:37} Profectique sunt filii Israel de Ramesse in Socoth, sexcenta fere millia peditum virorum, absque parvulis.
{12:37} And the sons of Israel set out from Rameses to Soccoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides little ones.

{12:38} Sed et vulgus promiscuum innumerabile ascendit cum eis, oves et armenta et animantia diversi generis multa nimis.
{12:38} But also an innumerable mix of common people ascended with them, sheep and herds and animals of diverse kinds, exceedingly many.

~ The common people were Egyptians, who were amazed by the Hebrews and their leaders, Moses and Aaron. They followed them to Succoth, and to the Red Sea, and many even crossed the Sea with them, as is evident from Numbers, chapter 12. These were the Egyptians and others who listened to the Lord and brought their servants and cattle into the houses, so that they did not die in the hail storm. That is why they had many cattle and why they were willing to follow Moses and his people.

{12:39} Coxeruntque farinam, quam dudum de Ægypto conspersam tulerant: et fecerunt subcinericios panes azymos: neque enim poterant fermentari cogentibus exire Ægyptiis, et nullam facere sinentibus moram: nec pulmenti quidquam occurrerat præparare.
{12:39} And they baked the bread, which a little while ago they had taken out of Egypt as dough. And they made unleavened bread baked under ashes. For it was not able to be leavened, with the Egyptians compelling them to leave and not permitting them to cause any delay. Neither did they have occasion to prepare any meat.

{12:40} Habitatio autem filiorum Israel qua manserunt in Ægypto, fuit quadringentorum triginta annorum.
{12:40} Now the habitation of the sons of Israel, while they remained in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.

{12:41} Quibus expletis, eadem die egressus est omnis exercitus Domini de Terra Ægypti.
{12:41} Having been completed, on the same day all the army of the Lord departed from the land of Egypt.

{12:42} Nox ista est observabilis Domini, quando eduxit eos de Terra Ægypti: hanc observare debent omnes filii Israel in generationibus suis.
{12:42} This night is a worthy observance of the Lord, when he led them out of the land of Egypt. This all the sons of Israel must observe in their generations.

{12:43} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen et Aaron: Hæc est religio Phase: Omnis alienigena non comedet ex eo.
{12:43} And the Lord said to Moses and to Aaron: “This is the religious observance of the Passover. No foreigner shall eat from it.

{12:44} Omnis autem servus emptitius circumcidetur, et sic comedet.
{12:44} But every bought servant shall be circumcised, and so he may eat from it.

{12:45} Advena et mercenarius non edent ex eo.
{12:45} The newcomer and the hired hand shall not eat from it.

{12:46} In una domo comedetur, nec efferetis de carnibus eius foras, nec os illius confringetis.
{12:46} In one house it shall be eaten; you shall not carry its flesh outside, nor shall you break its bone.

{12:47} Omnis cœtus filiorum Israel faciet illud.
{12:47} The entire assembly of the sons of Israel shall do this.

{12:48} Quod si quis peregrinorum in vestram voluerit transire coloniam, et facere Phase Domini, circumcidetur prius omne masculinum eius, et tunc rite celebrabit: eritque sicut indigena terræ: si quis autem circumcisus non fuerit, non vescetur ex eo.
{12:48} And if any sojourner will be willing to cross over into your settlement, and to keep the Passover of the Lord, all his males shall first be circumcised, and then he shall celebrate the rite. And he shall be just like a native of the land. But if any man is not circumcised, he shall not eat from it.

{12:49} Eadem lex erit indigenæ et colono qui peregrinatur apud vos.
{12:49} The law shall be the same for the native born and for the settler who sojourns with you.”

{12:50} Feceruntque omnes filii Israel sicut præceperat Dominus Moysi et Aaron.
{12:50} And all the sons of Israel did just as the Lord had instructed Moses and Aaron.

{12:51} Et eadem die eduxit Dominus filios Israel de terra Ægypti per turmas suas.
{12:51} And on the same day, the Lord led the sons of Israel out of the land of Egypt by their companies.

[Exodus 13]
[Exodus 13]

{13:1} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens:
{13:1} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

{13:2} Sanctifica mihi omne primogenitum quod aperit vulvam in filiis Israel, tam de hominibus quam de iumentis: mea sunt enim omnia.
{13:2} “Sanctify to me every firstborn which opens the womb among the sons of Israel, as much of men as of cattle. For they are all mine.”

{13:3} Et ait Moyses ad populum: Mementote diei huius in qua egressi estis de Ægypto et de domo servitutis, quoniam in manu forti eduxit vos Dominus de loco isto: ut non comedatis fermentatum panem.
{13:3} And Moses said to the people: “Remember this day, on which you were taken away from Egypt and from the house of servitude. For with a strong hand the Lord has led you away from this place. Thus, you shall eat no leavened bread.

{13:4} Hodie egredimini mense novarum frugum.
{13:4} Today, you go forth in the month of new grain.

{13:5} Cumque introduxerit te Dominus in Terram Chananæi et Hethæi et Amorrhæi et Hevæi et Iebusæi, quam iuravit patribus tuis ut daret tibi, terram fluentem lacte et melle, celebrabis hunc morem sacrorum mense isto.
{13:5} And when the Lord has brought you into the land of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, which he swore to your fathers that he would give to you, a land flowing with milk and honey, you will celebrate this manner of sacred rites in this month.

{13:6} Septem diebus vesceris azymis: et in die septimo erit sollemnitas Domini.
{13:6} For seven days, you shall feed on unleavened bread. And on the seventh day, it will be the solemnity of the Lord.

{13:7} Azyma comedetis septem diebus: non apparebit apud te aliquid fermentatum, nec in cunctis finibus tuis.
{13:7} You shall consume unleavened bread for seven days. There shall not be seen anything leavened with you, nor in all your parts.

{13:8} Narrabisque filio tuo in die illo, dicens: Hoc est quod fecit mihi Dominus quando egressus sum de Ægypto.
{13:8} And you will explain to your son in that day, saying: ‘This is what the Lord did for me when I was taken away from Egypt.’

{13:9} Et erit quasi signum in manu tua, et quasi monimentum ante oculos tuos: et ut lex Domini semper sit in ore tuo, in manu enim forti eduxit te Dominus de Ægypto.
{13:9} And it will be like a sign in your hand and like a memorial before your eyes. And so may the law of the Lord be always in your mouth. For with a strong hand, the Lord led you away from the land of Egypt.

{13:10} Custodies huiuscemodi cultum statuto tempore a diebus in dies.
{13:10} You will keep this observance, at the established time, from day to day.

{13:11} Cumque introduxerit te Dominus in Terram Chananæi, sicut iuravit tibi et patribus tuis, et dederit tibi eam:
{13:11} And when the Lord has brought you into the land of the Canaanite, just as he swore to you and to your fathers, and when he will give it you,

{13:12} separabis omne quod aperit vulvam Domino, et quod primitivum est in pecoribus tuis: quidquid habueris masculini sexus, consecrabis Domino.
{13:12} then you shall set aside for the Lord all that opens the womb and all that is first to go forth among your cattle. Whatever you will have of the male sex, you shall consecrate to the Lord.

{13:13} Primogenitum asini mutabis ove: quod si non redemeris, interficies. Omne autem primogenitum hominis de filiis tuis, pretio redimes.
{13:13} The firstborn of a donkey you will exchange for a sheep. And if you will not redeem it, you shall put it to death. But every firstborn of man among your sons, you shall redeem with a price.

{13:14} Cumque interrogaverit te filius tuus cras, dicens: Quid est hoc? respondebis ei: In manu forti eduxit nos Dominus de terra Ægypti, de domo servitutis.
{13:14} And when your son will question you tomorrow, saying, ‘What is this?’ you will respond, ‘With a strong hand the Lord led us away from the land of Egypt, from the house of servitude.

{13:15} Nam cum induratus esset Pharao, et nollet nos dimittere, occidit Dominus omne primogenitum in Terra Ægypti a primogenito hominis usque ad primogenitum iumentorum: idcirco immolo Domino omne quod aperit vulvam masculini sexus, et omnia primogenita filiorum meorum redimo.
{13:15} For when Pharaoh had been hardened and was unwilling to release us, the Lord killed every firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of man, even to the firstborn of beasts. For this reason, I immolate to the Lord all of the male sex that opens the womb, and all the firstborn of my sons I redeem.’

{13:16} Erit igitur quasi signum in manu tua, et quasi appensum quid, ob recordationem, inter oculos tuos: eo quod in manu forti eduxit nos Dominus de Ægypto.
{13:16} Therefore, it will be like a sign in your hand and like something hanging between your eyes as a remembrance, because with a strong hand the Lord has led us away from Egypt.”

{13:17} Igitur cum emisisset Pharao populum, non eos duxit Deus per viam Terræ Philisthiim quæ vicina est: reputans ne forte pœniteret eum, si vidisset adversum se bella consurgere, et reverteretur in Ægyptum.
{13:17} And so, when Pharaoh had sent the people away, God did not lead them by the way of the land of the Philistines, which is nearby, considering that perhaps they might relapse, if they saw wars rise up against them, and then they might return to Egypt.

{13:18} Sed circumduxit per viam deserti, quæ est iuxta Mare Rubrum: et armati ascenderunt filii Israel de Terra Ægypti.
{13:18} But he led them around by the way of the desert, which is next to the Red Sea. And so the sons of Israel ascended, armed, out of the land of Egypt.

{13:19} Tulit quoque Moyses ossa Ioseph secum: eo quod adiurasset filios Israel, dicens: Visitabit vos Deus, efferte ossa mea hinc vobiscum.
{13:19} Also, Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, because he had sworn to the sons of Israel, saying: “God will visit you. Carry my bones away from here with you.”

{13:20} Profectique de Socoth castrametati sunt in Etham in extremis finibus solitudinis.
{13:20} And setting out from Soccoth, they encamped at Etham, in the most distant parts of the wilderness.

{13:21} Dominus autem præcedebat eos ad ostendendam viam per diem in columna nubis, et per noctem in columna ignis: ut dux esset itineris utroque tempore.
{13:21} Now the Lord preceded them to show them the way, by day with a pillar of cloud, and by night with a pillar of fire, so that he might be the leader of their journey at both times.

{13:22} Numquam defuit columna nubis per diem, nec columna ignis per noctem, coram populo.
{13:22} These never failed: a pillar of cloud by day, and a pillar of fire by night, in the sight of the people.

[Exodus 14]
[Exodus 14]

{14:1} Locutus est autem Dominus ad Moysen, dicens:
{14:1} Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

{14:2} Loquere filiis Israel: Reversi castrametentur e regione Phihahiroth quæ est inter Magdalum et mare contra Beelsephon: in conspectu eius castra ponetis super mare.
{14:2} “Speak to the sons of Israel. Let them turn back and encamp away from the region of Pihahiroth, which is between Migdol and the sea, opposite Baal-zephon. In its sight you shall place your camp, above the sea.

{14:3} Dicturusque est Pharao super filiis Israel: Coarctati sunt in terra, conclusit eos desertum.
{14:3} And Pharaoh will say about the sons of Israel, ‘They have been confined by the land; the desert has enclosed them.’

{14:4} Et indurabo cor eius, ac persequetur vos: et glorificabor in Pharaone, et in omni exercitu eius. scientque Ægyptii quia ego sum Dominus. Feceruntque ita.
{14:4} And I will harden his heart, and so he will pursue you. And I will be glorified in Pharaoh, and in all his army. And the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord.” And they did so.

{14:5} Et nunciatum est regi Ægyptiorum quod fugisset populus: immutatumque est cor Pharaonis et servorum eius super populo, et dixerunt: Quid voluimus facere ut dimitteremus Israel, ne serviret nobis?
{14:5} And it was reported to the king of the Egyptians that the people had fled. And the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was changed about the people, and they said, “What did we intend to do, so that we released Israel from serving us?”

{14:6} Iunxit ergo currum, et omnem populum suum assumpsit secum.
{14:6} Therefore, he harnessed his chariot, and he took all his people with him.

{14:7} Tulitque sexcentos currus electos, et quidquid in Ægypto curruum fuit: et duces totius exercitus.
{14:7} And he took six hundred chosen chariots, and whatever chariots were in Egypt, and also the leaders of the whole army.

~ Undoubtedly, many of Pharaoh’s horses were killed by the hail and the other plagues. He had six hundred of his own best chariots, and some others that were from various places in Egypt. But before the plagues, certainly the number of chariots that a powerful nation like Egypt could muster would be much greater.

{14:8} Induravitque Dominus cor Pharaonis regis Ægypti, et persecutus est filios Israel: at illi egressi sunt in manu excelsa.
{14:8} And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and he pursued the sons of Israel. But they were taken away by an exalted hand.

{14:9} Cumque persequerentur Ægyptii vestigia præcedentium, repererunt eos in castris super mare: omnis equitatus et currus Pharaonis, et universus exercitus erant in Phihahiroth contra Beelsephon.
{14:9} And when the Egyptians followed the footsteps of those who preceded them, they found them in a camp above the sea. All the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and the entire army, were in Pihahiroth, opposite Baal-zephon.

{14:10} Cumque appropinquasset Pharao, levantes filii Israel oculos, viderunt Ægyptios post se: et timuerunt valde: clamaveruntque ad Dominum,
{14:10} And when Pharaoh had drawn near, the sons of Israel, lifting up their eyes, saw the Egyptians behind them. And they were very afraid. And they cried out to the Lord.

{14:11} et dixerunt ad Moysen: Forsitan non erant sepulchra in Ægypto, ideo tulisti nos ut moreremur in solitudine: quid hoc facere voluisti, ut educeres nos ex Ægypto?
{14:11} And they said to Moses: “Perhaps there were no graves in Egypt, for which reason you took us to die in the wilderness. What is it that you intended to do, in leading us out of Egypt?

{14:12} Nonne iste est sermo, quem loquebamur ad te in Ægypto, dicentes: Recede a nobis, ut serviamus Ægyptiis? multo enim melius erat servire eis, quam mori in solitudine.
{14:12} Is this not the word that we spoke to you in Egypt, saying: Withdraw from us, so that we may serve the Egyptians? For it was much better to serve them, than to die in the wilderness.”

{14:13} Et ait Moyses ad populum: Nolite timere: state, et videte magnalia Domini quæ facturus est hodie: Ægyptios enim, quos nunc videtis, nequaquam ultra videbitis usque in sempiternum.
{14:13} And Moses said to the people: “Do not be afraid. Stand firm and see the great wonders of the Lord, which he will do today. For the Egyptians, whom you now see, will never again be seen, forever.

{14:14} Dominus pugnabit pro vobis, et vos tacebitis.
{14:14} The Lord will fight on your behalf, and you will remain silent.”

{14:15} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen: Quid clamas ad me? Loquere filiis Israel ut proficiscantur.
{14:15} And the Lord said to Moses: “Why cry out to me? Tell the sons of Israel to continue on.

{14:16} Tu autem eleva virgam tuam, et extende manum tuam super mare, et divide illud: ut gradiantur filii Israel in medio mari per siccum.
{14:16} Now, lift up your staff, and extend your hand over the sea and divide it, so that the sons of Israel may walk through the midst of the sea on dry ground.

{14:17} Ego autem indurabo cor Ægyptiorum ut persequantur vos: et glorificabor in Pharaone, et in omni exercitu eius, et in curribus et in equitibus illius.
{14:17} Then I will harden the heart of the Egyptians, so as to pursue you. And I will be glorified in Pharaoh, and in all his army, and in his chariots, and in his horsemen.

{14:18} Et scient Ægyptii quia ego sum Dominus cum glorificatus fuero in Pharaone, et in curribus atque in equitibus eius.
{14:18} And the Egyptians will know that I am the Lord, when I will be glorified in Pharaoh, and in his chariots, as well as in his horsemen.”

{14:19} Tollensque se Angelus Dei, qui præcedebat castra Israel, abiit post eos: et cum eo pariter columna nubis, priora dimittens, post tergum
{14:19} And the Angel of God, who preceded the camp of Israel, lifting himself up, went behind them. And the pillar of cloud, together with him, left the front for the rear

{14:20} stetit, inter castra Ægyptiorum et castra Israel: et erat nubes tenebrosa, et illuminans noctem, ita ut ad se invicem toto noctis tempore accedere non valerent.
{14:20} and stood between the camp of the Egyptians and the camp of Israel. And it was a dark cloud, yet it illuminated the night, so that they could not succeed at approaching one another at any time all that night.

{14:21} Cumque extendisset Moyses manum super mare, abstulit illud Dominus flante vento vehementi et urente tota nocte, et vertit in siccum: divisaque est aqua.
{14:21} And when Moses had extended his hand over the sea, the Lord took it away by an intense burning wind, blowing throughout the night, and he turned it into dry ground. And the water was divided.

{14:22} Et ingressi sunt filii Israel per medium sicci maris: erat enim aqua quasi murus a dextra eorum et læva.
{14:22} And the sons of Israel went in through the midst of the dried sea. For the water was like a wall at their right hand and at their left hand.

{14:23} Persequentesque Ægyptii ingressi sunt post eos, et omnis equitatus Pharaonis, currus eius et equites per medium maris.
{14:23} And the Egyptians, pursuing them, went in after them, along with all of the horses of Pharaoh, his chariots and horsemen, through the midst of the sea.

{14:24} Iamque advenerat vigilia matutina, et ecce respiciens Dominus super castra Ægyptiorum per columnam ignis et nubis, interfecit exercitum eorum:
{14:24} And now the morning watch had arrived, and behold, the Lord, looking down upon the camp of the Egyptians through the pillar of fire and of cloud, put to death their army.

{14:25} et subvertit rotas curruum, ferebanturque in profundum. Dixerunt ergo Ægyptii: Fugiamus Israelem: Dominus enim pugnat pro eis contra nos.
{14:25} And he overturned the wheels of the chariots, and they were carried into the deep. Therefore, the Egyptians said: “Let us flee from Israel. For the Lord fights on their behalf against us.”

{14:26} Et ait Dominus ad Moysen: Extende manum tuam super mare, ut revertantur aquæ ad Ægyptios super currus et equites eorum.
{14:26} And the Lord said to Moses: “Extend your hand over the sea, so that the waters may return on the Egyptians, over their chariots and horsemen.”

{14:27} Cumque extendisset Moyses manum contra mare, reversum est primo diluculo ad priorem locum: fugientibusque Ægyptiis occurrerunt aquæ, et involvit eos Dominus in mediis fluctibus.
{14:27} And when Moses had extended his hand opposite the sea, it was returned, at first light, to its former place. And the fleeing Egyptians met with the waters, and the Lord immersed them in the midst of the waves.

{14:28} Reversæque sunt aquæ, et operuerunt currus et equites cuncti exercitus Pharaonis, qui sequentes ingressi fuerant mare: nec unus quidem superfuit ex eis.
{14:28} And the waters were returned, and they covered the chariots and horsemen of the entire army of Pharaoh, who, in following, had entered into the sea. And not so much as one of them was left alive.

{14:29} Filii autem Israel perrexerunt per medium sicci maris, et aquæ eis erant quasi pro muro a dextris et a sinistris:
{14:29} But the sons of Israel continued directly through the midst of the dried sea, and the waters were to them like a wall on the right and on the left.

{14:30} liberavitque Dominus in die illa Israel de manu Ægyptiorum.
{14:30} And so the Lord freed Israel on that day from the hand of the Egyptians.

{14:31} Et viderunt Ægyptios mortuos super littus maris, et manum magnam quam exercuerat Dominus contra eos: timuitque populus Dominum, et crediderunt Domino, et Moysi servo eius.
{14:31} And they saw the Egyptians dead on the shore of the sea and the great hand that the Lord had exercised against them. And the people feared the Lord, and they believed in the Lord and in Moses his servant.

[Exodus 15]
[Exodus 15]

{15:1} Tunc cecinit Moyses et filii Israel carmen hoc Domino, et dixerunt: Cantemus Domino: gloriose enim magnificatus est, equum et ascensorem deiecit in mare.
{15:1} Then Moses and the sons of Israel sang this song to the Lord, and they said: “Let us sing to the Lord, for he has been gloriously magnified: the horse and the rider he has cast into the sea.

{15:2} Fortitudo mea, et laus mea Dominus, et factus est mihi in salutem: iste Deus meus, et glorificabo eum: Deus patris mei, et exaltabo eum.
{15:2} The Lord is my strength and my praise, and he has become my salvation. He is my God, and I shall glorify him. He is the God of my father, and I shall exalt him.

{15:3} Dominus quasi vir pugnator, omnipotens nomen eius.
{15:3} The Lord is like a fighting man. Almighty is his name.

{15:4} Currus Pharaonis et exercitum eius proiecit in mare: electi principes eius submersi sunt in Mari Rubro.
{15:4} The chariots of Pharaoh, and his army, he has cast into the sea; his elect leaders have been submerged in the Red Sea.

{15:5} Abyssi operuerunt eos, descenderunt in profundum quasi lapis.
{15:5} The abyss has covered them. They descended into the depths like a stone.

{15:6} Dextera tua Domine magnificata est in fortitudine: dextera tua, Domine, percussit inimicum.
{15:6} Your right hand, O Lord, has been magnified in strength. Your right hand, O Lord, has struck down the enemy.

{15:7} Et in multitudine gloriæ tuæ deposuisti adversarios tuos: misisti iram tuam, quæ devoravit eos sicut stipulam.
{15:7} And in the multitude of your glory you have put down your adversaries. You sent out your wrath, which devoured them like stubble.

{15:8} Et in spiritu furoris tui congregatæ sunt aquæ: stetit unda fluens, congregata sunt abyssi in medio mari.
{15:8} And by the breath of your fury, the waters were gathered together. The flowing waves stood still. The abyss was gathered into the midst of the sea.

{15:9} Dixit inimicus: Persequar et comprehendam, dividam spolia, implebitur anima mea: evaginabo gladium meum, interficiet eos manus mea.
{15:9} The enemy said: ‘I will pursue and overtake them. I will divide the spoils. My soul will be filled. I will unsheathe my sword. My hand will put them to death.’

{15:10} Flavit spiritus tuus, et operuit eos mare: submersi sunt quasi plumbum in aquis vehementibus.
{15:10} Your breath blew, and the sea covered them. They were submerged like lead into the mighty waters.

{15:11} Quis similis tui in fortibus Domine? quis similis tui, magnificus in sanctitate, terribilis atque laudabilis, faciens mirabilia?
{15:11} Who is like you in strength, O Lord? Who is like you: magnificent in sanctity, terrible and yet praiseworthy, accomplishing miracles?

{15:12} Extendisti manum tuam, et devoravit eos terra.
{15:12} You extended your hand, and the earth devoured them.

{15:13} Dux fuisti in misericordia tua populo quem redemisti: et portasti eum in fortitudine tua, ad habitaculum sanctum tuum.
{15:13} In your mercy, you have been a leader to the people whom you have redeemed. And in your strength, you have carried them to your holy dwelling place.

~ Which place is the ‘holy dwelling place’? It is the Promised Land and it is Mount Zion. The wording of this text indicates that it was written after the Israelites reached the land of Israel.

{15:14} Ascenderunt populi, et irati sunt: dolores obtinuerunt habitatores Philisthiim.
{15:14} Peoples rose up and became angry. Sorrows took hold of the inhabitants of Philistia.

{15:15} Tunc conturbati sunt principes Edom, robustos Moab obtinuit tremor: obriguerunt omnes habitatores Chanaan.
{15:15} Then the leaders of Edom were stirred up, and trembling took hold of the robust of Moab. All the inhabitants of Canaan were petrified.

{15:16} Irruat super eos formido et pavor, in magnitudine brachii tui: fiant immobiles quasi lapis, donec pertranseat populus tuus Domine, donec pertranseat populus tuus iste, quem possedisti.
{15:16} Let fear and dread fall upon them, by the magnitude of your arm. Let them become immobilized like stone, until your people cross through, O Lord, until this, your people whom you possess, cross through.

{15:17} Introduces eos, et plantabis in monte hereditatis tuæ, firmissimo habitaculo tuo quod operatus es Domine: sanctuarium tuum Domine, quod firmaverunt manus tuæ.
{15:17} You shall lead them in and plant them, on the mountain of your inheritance, in your most firm dwelling place, which you have formed, O Lord, your sanctuary, O Lord, which your hands have made firm.

{15:18} Dominus regnabit in æternum et ultra.
{15:18} The Lord will reign in eternity and beyond.

{15:19} Ingressus est enim eques Pharao cum curribus et equitibus eius in mare: et reduxit super eos Dominus aquas maris: filii autem Israel ambulaverunt per siccum in medio eius.
{15:19} For the rider Pharaoh, with his chariots and horsemen, was brought into the sea. And the Lord brought back upon them the waters of the sea. But the sons of Israel walked across dry ground in its midst.”

{15:20} Sumpsit ergo Maria prophetissa, soror Aaron, tympanum in manu sua: egressæque sunt omnes mulieres post eam cum tympanis et choris,
{15:20} And so Miriam, the prophetess, the sister of Aaron, took up a timbrel in her hand. And all the women followed her with timbrels and dancing.

{15:21} quibus præcinebat, dicens: Cantemus Domino, gloriose enim magnificatus est, equum et ascensorem eius deiecit in mare.
{15:21} And she prophesied, saying: “Let us sing to the Lord, for he has been gloriously magnified. The horse and its rider, he has thrown into the sea.”

~ The word ‘præcinebat’ refers to predictions or prophecy. Miriam’s song, only the first part of which is given here, was viewed as prophetic. Not all prophecy predicts the future; some prophecy describes past events with prophetic insight.

{15:22} Tulit autem Moyses Israel de Mari Rubro, et egressi sunt in desertum Sur: ambulaveruntque tribus diebus per solitudinem, et non inveniebant aquam.
{15:22} Then Moses took Israel from the Red Sea, and they went forth into the desert of Shur. And they wandered for three days through the wilderness, and they found no water.

{15:23} Et venerunt in Mara, nec poterant bibere aquas de Mara, eo quod essent amaræ: unde et congruum loco nomen imposuit, vocans illum Mara, id est, amaritudinem.
{15:23} And they arrived at Marah. They were unable to drink the waters of Marah because they were bitter. Therefore, he also established a name befitting the place, calling it ‘Marah,’ that is, bitterness.

{15:24} Et murmuravit populus contra Moysen, dicens: Quid bibemus?
{15:24} And the people murmured against Moses, saying: “What shall we drink?”

{15:25} At ille clamavit ad Dominum, qui ostendit ei lignum: quod cum misisset in aquas, in dulcedinem versæ sunt. Ibi constituit ei præcepta, atque iudicia, et ibi tentavit eum,
{15:25} So he cried out to the Lord, who showed him a tree. And when he had cast it into the waters, they were turned into sweetness. In that place, he established instructions for him, and also judgments. And he tested him there,

{15:26} dicens: Si audieris vocem Domini Dei tui, et quod rectum est coram eo feceris, et obedieris mandatis eius, custodierisque omnia præcepta illius, cunctum languorem, quem posui in Ægypto, non inducam super te: ego enim Dominus sanator tuus.
{15:26} saying: “If you will listen to the voice of the Lord your God, and do what is right in his sight, and obey his commands, and keep all his precepts, I will not bring upon you any of the distress that I imposed on Egypt. For I am the Lord, your healer.”

{15:27} Venerunt autem in Elim filii Israel, ubi erant duodecim fontes aquarum, et septuaginta palmæ: et castrametati sunt iuxta aquas.
{15:27} Then the sons of Israel arrived in Elim, where there were twelve fountains of water and seventy palm trees. And they camped next to the waters.

[Exodus 16]
[Exodus 16]

{16:1} Profectique sunt de Elim, et venit omnis multitudo filiorum Israel in desertum Sin, quod est inter Elim et Sinai: quintodecimo die mensis secundi, postquam egressi sunt de terra Ægypti.
{16:1} And they set out from Elim. And the entire multitude of the sons of Israel arrived at the desert of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month, after they departed from the land of Egypt.

{16:2} Et murmuravit omnis congregatio filiorum Israel contra Moysen et Aaron in solitudine.
{16:2} And the entire congregation of the sons of Israel murmured against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness.

{16:3} Dixeruntque filii Israel ad eos: Utinam mortui essemus per manum Domini in Terra Ægypti, quando sedebamus super ollas carnium, et comedebamus panem in saturitate: cur eduxistis nos in desertum istud, ut occideretis omnem multitudinem fame?
{16:3} And the sons of Israel said to them: “If only we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, when we sat around bowls of meat and ate bread until filled. Why have you led us away, into this desert, so that you might kill the entire multitude with famine?”

{16:4} Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen: Ecce, ego pluam vobis panes de cælo: egrediatur populus, et colligat quæ sufficiunt per singulos dies: ut tentem eum utrum ambulet in lege mea, an non.
{16:4} Then the Lord said to Moses: “Behold, I will rain down bread from heaven for you. Let the people go out and collect what is sufficient for each day, so that I may test them, as to whether or not they will walk in my law.

{16:5} Die autem sexto parent quod inferant: et sit duplum quam colligere solebant per singulos dies.
{16:5} But on the sixth day, let them prepare what they use for carrying, and let there be double what they were accustomed to collect on a single day.”

{16:6} Dixeruntque Moyses et Aaron ad omnes filios Israel: Vespere scietis quod Dominus eduxerit vos de terra Ægypti:
{16:6} And Moses and Aaron said to the sons of Israel: “In the evening, you will know that the Lord has led you away from the land of Egypt.

{16:7} et mane videbitis gloriam Domini: audivit enim murmur vestrum contra Dominum: nos vero quid sumus, quia mussitastis contra nos?
{16:7} And in the morning, you will see the glory of the Lord. For he has heard your murmuring against the Lord. But as for us, truly what are we, that you would whisper against us?”

{16:8} Et ait Moyses: Dabit vobis Dominus vespere carnes edere, et mane panes in saturitate: eo quod audierit murmurationes vestras quibus murmurati estis contra eum, nos enim quid sumus? nec contra nos est murmur vestrum, sed contra Dominum.
{16:8} And Moses said: “In the evening, the Lord will give you flesh to eat, and in the morning, bread in fullness. For he has heard your murmurings that you have murmured against him. For what are we? Your murmuring is not against us, but against the Lord.”

{16:9} Dixit quoque Moyses ad Aaron: Dic universæ congregationi filiorum Israel: Accedite coram Domino: audivit enim murmur vestrum.
{16:9} Moses also said to Aaron: “Say to the whole congregation of the sons of Israel, ‘Approach before the Lord. For he has heard your murmuring.’ ”

{16:10} Cumque loqueretur Aaron ad omnem cœtum filiorum Israel, respexerunt ad solitudinem: et ecce gloria Domini apparuit in nube.
{16:10} And when Aaron spoke to the entire assembly of the sons of Israel, they looked out toward the wilderness. And behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in a cloud.

{16:11} Locutus est autem Dominus ad Moysen, dicens:
{16:11} Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

{16:12} Audivi murmurationes filiorum Israel, loquere ad eos: Vespere comedetis carnes, et mane saturabimini panibus: scietisque quod ego sum Dominus Deus vester.
{16:12} “I have heard the murmuring of the sons of Israel. Say to them: ‘In the evening, you will eat flesh, and in the morning, you will be filled with bread. And you shall know that I am the Lord your God.’ ”

{16:13} Factum est ergo vespere, et ascendens coturnix, cooperuit castra: mane quoque ros iacuit per circuitum castrorum.
{16:13} Therefore, it happened in the evening: quails, rising up, covered the camp. Likewise, in the morning, a dew lay all around the camp.

{16:14} Cumque operuisset superficiem terræ, apparuit in solitudine minutum, et quasi pilo tusum in similitudinem pruinæ super terram.
{16:14} And when it had covered the face of the earth, it appeared, in the wilderness, small and as if crushed with a pestle, similar to hoar-frost on the ground.

{16:15} Quod cum vidissent filii Israel, dixerunt ad invicem: Manhu? quod significat: Quid est hoc? ignorabant enim quid esset. Quibus ait Moyses: Iste est panis, quem Dominus dedit vobis ad vescendum.
{16:15} When the sons of Israel had seen it, they said one to another: “Manhu?” which means “What is this?” For they did not know what it was. And Moses said to them: “This is the bread that the Lord has given you to eat.

{16:16} Hic est sermo, quem præcepit Dominus: Colligat unusquisque ex eo quantum sufficit ad vescendum: gomor per singula capita, iuxta numerum animarum vestrarum quæ habitant in tabernaculo sic tolletis.
{16:16} This is the word that the Lord has instructed. Let each one collect as much of it as is sufficient to eat. One omer for each head. According to the number of your souls which live in a tent, so will you take of it.”

~ An omer is about 2.1 liters of volume.

{16:17} Feceruntque ita filii Israel: et collegerunt, alius plus, alius minus.
{16:17} And the sons of Israel did so. And they collected: some more, others less.

{16:18} Et mensi sunt ad mensuram gomor: nec qui plus collegerat, habuit amplius: nec qui minus paraverat, reperit minus: sed singuli iuxta id quod edere poterant, congregaverunt.
{16:18} And they measured by the measure of an omer. He who collected more, did not have too much; nor did he who prepared less, find too little. But each one gathered according to what they were able to eat.

{16:19} Dixitque Moyses ad eos: Nullus relinquat ex eo in mane.
{16:19} And Moses said to them, “Let no one leave any of it behind until morning.”

{16:20} Qui non audierunt eum, sed dimiserunt quidam ex eis usque mane, et scatere cœpit vermibus, atque computruit: et iratus est contra eos Moyses.
{16:20} And they did not listen to him, but they left some of it behind until morning, and it began to swarm with worms, and it putrefied. And Moses became angry against them.

{16:21} Colligebant autem mane singuli, quantum sufficere poterat ad vescendum: cumque incaluisset sol, liquefiebat.
{16:21} Then each one collected, in the morning, as much as would be sufficient to eat. And after the sun became hot, it melted.

{16:22} In die autem sexta collegerunt cibos duplices, id est, duo gomor per singulos homines: venerunt autem omnes principes multitudinis, et narraverunt Moysi.
{16:22} But on the sixth day, they collected a double portion, that is, two omers for each man. Then all the leaders among the multitude came, and they discoursed with Moses.

{16:23} Qui ait eis: Hoc est quod locutus est Dominus: Requies sabbati sanctificata est Domino cras. Quodcumque operandum est, facite: et quæ coquenda sunt coquite: quidquid autem reliquum fuerit, reponite usque in mane.
{16:23} And he said to them: “This is what the Lord has spoken: Tomorrow, the rest day of the Sabbath, has been sanctified to the Lord. Whatever would be done, do it now. And whatever would be cooked, cook it now. Then anything that will have been left over, store it until morning.”

~ The addition of the word ‘now’ is justified because the imperative form of the verbs are present tense. The meaning of the verse is to do the work now, the day before the Sabbath, and to cook the food now, so as not to work or cook on the Sabbath.

{16:24} Feceruntque ita ut præceperat Moyses, et non computruit, neque vermis inventus est in eo.
{16:24} And they did just as Moses had instructed, and it did not putrefy, nor were there any worms found in it.

{16:25} Dixitque Moyses: Comedite illud hodie, quia sabbatum est Domini: non invenietur hodie in agro.
{16:25} And Moses said: “Eat it today, because it is the Sabbath of the Lord. Today it will not be found in the field.

{16:26} Sex diebus colligite: in die autem septimo sabbatum est Domini, idcirco non invenietur.
{16:26} Gather for six days. But on the seventh day, it is the Sabbath of the Lord, for which reason it will not be found.”

{16:27} Venitque septima dies: et egressi de populo ut colligerent, non invenerunt.
{16:27} And the seventh day arrived. And some of the people, going out to collect it, did not find it.

{16:28} Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen: Usquequo non vultis custodire mandata mea, et legem meam?
{16:28} Then the Lord said to Moses: “How long will you be unwilling to keep my commandments and my law?

{16:29} Videte quod Dominus dederit vobis sabbatum, et propter hoc die sexta tribuit vobis cibos duplices: maneat unusquisque apud semetipsum: nullus egrediatur de loco suo die septimo.
{16:29} See how the Lord has given you the Sabbath, and, because of this, on the sixth day he distributes to you a double portion. Let each one remain with his own, and let no one go forth from his place on the seventh day.”

{16:30} Et sabbatizavit populus die septimo.
{16:30} And the people kept the Sabbath on the seventh day.

{16:31} Appellavitque domus Israel nomen eius Man: quod erat quasi semen coriandri album, gustusque eius quasi similæ cum melle.
{16:31} And the house of Israel called its name ‘Manna.’ It was like white coriander seed, and its taste was like wheat flour with honey.

{16:32} Dixit autem Moyses: Iste est sermo, quem præcepit Dominus: Imple gomor ex eo, et custodiatur in futuras retro generationes: ut noverint panem, quo alui vos in solitudine, quando educti estis de Terra Ægypti.
{16:32} Then Moses said: “This is the word that the Lord has instructed: Fill an omer of it, and let it be kept for future generations hereafter, so that they may know the bread, with which I nourished you in the wilderness, when you had been led away from the land of Egypt.”

{16:33} Dixitque Moyses ad Aaron: Sume vas unum, et mitte ibi Man, quantum potest capere gomor: et repone coram Domino ad servandum in generationes vestras:
{16:33} And Moses said to Aaron, “Take one vessel, and put manna into it, as much as an omer is able to hold. And store it in the sight of the Lord, to keep for your generations,

{16:34} sicut præcepit Dominus Moysi. Posuitque illud Aaron in tabernaculo reservandum.
{16:34} just as the Lord instructed Moses.” And so, Aaron placed it in the tabernacle, in reserve.

{16:35} Filii autem Israel comederunt Man quadraginta annis, donec venirent in terram habitabilem: hoc cibo aliti sunt, usquequo tangerent fines terræ Chanaan.
{16:35} Now the sons of Israel ate manna for forty years, until they arrived in a habitable land. With this food they were nourished, even until they touched the borders of the land of Canaan.

{16:36} Gomor autem decima pars est ephi.
{16:36} Now an omer is a tenth part of an ephah.

[Exodus 17]
[Exodus 17]

{17:1} Igitur profecta omnis multitudo filiorum Israel de deserto Sin per mansiones suas, iuxta sermonem Domini, castrametati sunt in Raphidim, ubi non erat aqua ad bibendum populo.
{17:1} And so, the entire multitude of the sons of Israel, having set out from the desert of Sin in stages, according to the word of the Lord, made camp at Rephidim, where there was no water for the people to drink.

{17:2} Qui iurgatus contra Moysen, ait: Da nobis aquam, ut bibamus. Quibus respondit Moyses: Quid iurgamini contra me? cur tentatis Dominum?
{17:2} And arguing against Moses, they said, “Give us water, so that we may drink.” And Moses answered them: “Why argue against me? For what reason do you tempt the Lord?”

{17:3} Sitivit ergo ibi populus præ aquæ penuria, et murmuravit contra Moysen, dicens: Cur fecisti nos exire de Ægypto, ut occideres nos, et liberos nostros, ac iumenta siti?
{17:3} And so the people were thirsty in that place, due to the scarcity of water, and they murmured against Moses, saying: “Why did you cause us to go out of Egypt, so as to kill us and our children, as well as our cattle, with thirst?”

{17:4} Clamavit autem Moyses ad Dominum, dicens: Quid faciam populo huic? adhuc paululum, et lapidabit me.
{17:4} Then Moses cried out to the Lord, saying: “What shall I do with this people? A little while more and they will stone me.”

{17:5} Et ait Dominus ad Moysen: Antecede populum, et sume tecum de senioribus Israel: et virgam qua percussisti fluvium, tolle in manu tua, et vade.
{17:5} And the Lord said to Moses: “Go before the people, and take with you some of the elders of Israel. And take in your hand the staff, with which you struck the river, and advance.

{17:6} En ego stabo ibi coram te, supra petram Horeb: percutiesque petram, et exibit ex ea aqua, ut bibat populus. Fecit Moyses ita coram senioribus Israel:
{17:6} Lo, I will stand in that place before you, on the rock of Horeb. And you shall strike the rock, and water will go forth from it, so that the people may drink.” Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.

{17:7} et vocavit nomen loci illius, Tentatio, propter iurgium filiorum Israel, et quia tentaverunt Dominum, dicentes: Est ne Dominus in nobis, an non?
{17:7} And he called the name of that place ‘Temptation,’ because of the arguing of the sons of Israel, and because they tempted the Lord, saying: “Is the Lord with us, or not?”

{17:8} Venit autem Amalec, et pugnabat contra Israel in Raphidim.
{17:8} And Amalek came and fought against Israel at Rephidim.

{17:9} Dixitque Moyses ad Iosue: Elige viros: et egressus, pugna contra Amalec: cras ego stabo in vertice collis, habens virgam Dei in manu mea.
{17:9} And Moses said to Joshua: “Choose men. And when you go out, fight against Amalek. Tomorrow, I will stand at the top of the hill, holding the staff of God in my hand.”

{17:10} Fecit Iosue ut locutus erat Moyses, et pugnavit contra Amalec: Moyses autem et Aaron, et Hur ascenderunt super verticem collis.
{17:10} Joshua did as Moses had spoken, and he fought against Amalek. But Moses and Aaron and Hur ascended to the top of the hill.

{17:11} Cumque levaret Moyses manus, vincebat Israel: sin autem paululum remisisset, superabat Amalec.
{17:11} And when Moses lifted up his hands, Israel prevailed. But when he released them a little while, Amalek overcame.

{17:12} Manus autem Moysi erant graves: sumentes igitur lapidem, posuerunt subter eum, in quo sedit: Aaron autem et Hur sustentabant manus eius ex utraque parte. Et factum est ut manus illius non lassarentur usque ad occasum solis.
{17:12} Then the hands of Moses became heavy. And so, taking a stone, they placed it beneath him, and he sat on it. Then Aaron and Hur sustained his hands from both sides. And it happened that his hands did not tire until the setting of the sun.

{17:13} Fugavitque Iosue Amalec, et populum eius in ore gladii.
{17:13} And Joshua put to flight Amalek and his people by the edge of the sword.

{17:14} Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen: Scribe hoc ob monimentum in libro, et trade auribus Iosue: delebo enim memoriam Amalec sub cælo.
{17:14} Then the Lord said to Moses: “Write this, as a memorial in a book, and deliver it to the ears of Joshua. For I will wipe away the memory of Amalek from under heaven.”

{17:15} Ædificavitque Moyses altare: et vocavit nomen eius, Dominus exaltatio mea, dicens:
{17:15} And Moses built an altar. And he called its name, ‘The Lord, my Exaltation.’ For he said:

{17:16} Quia manus solii Domini, et bellum Domini erit contra Amalec, a generatione in generationem.
{17:16} “The hand of the throne of the Lord, and the war of the Lord, will be against Amalek from generation to generation.”

[Exodus 18]
[Exodus 18]

{18:1} Cumque audisset Iethro, sacerdos Madian, cognatus Moysi, omnia quæ fecerat Deus Moysi, et Israeli populo suo, et quod eduxisset Dominus Israel de Ægypto:
{18:1} And when Jethro, the priest of Midian, the kinsman of Moses, had heard all that God had done for Moses, and for his people Israel, and that the Lord had led Israel away from Egypt,

{18:2} tulit Sephoram uxorem Moysi quam remiserat:
{18:2} he brought Zipporah, the wife of Moses, whom he was to return to him,

{18:3} et duos filios eius, quorum unus vocabatur Gersam, dicente patre: Advena fui in terra aliena.
{18:3} and her two sons, of whom one was called Gershom, (for his father said, “I have been a newcomer in a foreign land,”)

{18:4} Alter vero Eliezer: Deus enim, ait, patris mei adiutor meus, et eruit me de gladio Pharaonis.
{18:4} and the other in truth was Eliezer, (“For the God of my father,” he said, “is my helper, and has rescued me from the sword of Pharaoh.”)

{18:5} Venit ergo Iethro cognatus Moysi, et filii eius, et uxor eius ad Moysen in desertum, ubi erat castrametatus iuxta montem Dei.
{18:5} And so Jethro, the kinsman of Moses, with his sons and his wife, came to Moses in the desert, where he was encamped next to the mountain of God.

{18:6} Et mandavit Moysi, dicens: Ego Iethro cognatus tuus venio ad te, et uxor tua, et duo filii cum ea.
{18:6} And he sent word to Moses, saying: “I, Jethro, your kinsman, have come to you, with your wife, and your two sons with her.”

{18:7} Qui egressus in occursum cognati sui, adoravit, et osculatus est eum: salutaveruntque se mutuo verbis pacificis. Cumque intrasset tabernaculum,
{18:7} And going out to meet his kinsman, he reverenced and kissed him. And they saluted each other with peaceful words. And when he had arrived at the tent,

{18:8} narravit Moyses cognato suo cuncta quæ fecerat Dominus Pharaoni, et Ægyptiis propter Israel: universumque laborem, qui accidisset eis in itinere, et quod liberaverat eos Dominus.
{18:8} Moses explained to his kinsman all that the Lord had done to Pharaoh and to the Egyptians on behalf of Israel, and all the hardships which had befallen them on the journey, and how the Lord had freed them.

{18:9} Lætatusque est Iethro super omnibus bonis, quæ fecerat Dominus Israeli, eo quod eruisset eum de manu Ægyptiorum,
{18:9} And Jethro was gladdened over all the good that the Lord had done for Israel, because he had rescued them from the hand of the Egyptians.

{18:10} et ait: Benedictus Dominus, qui liberavit vos de manu Ægyptiorum, et de manu Pharaonis, qui eruit populum suum de manu Ægypti.
{18:10} And he said: “Blessed is the Lord, who has freed his people from the hand of the Egyptians and from the hand of Pharaoh; he has rescued his people from the hand of Egypt.

{18:11} Nunc cognovi, quia magnus Dominus super omnes deos: eo quod superbe egerint contra illos.
{18:11} Now I know that the great Lord is above all gods. This is why they acted arrogantly against them.”

~ The Egyptians, in other words, acted arrogantly against Israel because the God of Israel is above all the other gods. So Jethro is saying that the Egyptians were upset that their slaves had the one true God, while their gods were not true.

{18:12} Obtulit ergo Iethro cognatus Moysi holocausta et hostias Deo: veneruntque Aaron et omnes seniores Israel, ut comederent panem cum eo coram Deo.
{18:12} And so Jethro, the kinsman of Moses, offered holocausts and sacrifices to God. And Aaron arrived with all the elders of Israel, in order to eat bread with him in the sight of God.

{18:13} Altera autem die sedit Moyses ut iudicaret populum, qui assistebat Moysi a mane usque ad vesperam.
{18:13} Then, the next day, Moses sat down in order to judge the people, and they stood beside Moses from morning, even until evening.

{18:14} Quod cum vidisset cognatus eius, omnia scilicet quæ agebat in populo, ait: Quid est hoc quod facis in plebe? Cur solus sedes, et omnis populus præstolatur de mane usque ad vesperam?
{18:14} And when, of course, his kinsman saw all that he did among the people, he said: “What is this that you do among the people? Why do you sit alone, while all the people stand before you, from morning, even until evening?”

{18:15} Cui respondit Moyses: Venit ad me populus quærens sententiam Dei.
{18:15} And Moses answered him: “The people come to me seeking the verdict of God.

{18:16} Cumque acciderit eis aliqua disceptatio, veniunt ad me ut iudicem inter eos, et ostendam præcepta Dei, et leges eius.
{18:16} And when any kind of dispute occurs among them, they come to me to judge between them, and to reveal the precepts of God and of his laws.”

{18:17} At ille: Non bonam, inquit, rem facis:
{18:17} But he said, “This is not good, what you are doing.

{18:18} stulto labore consumeris et tu, et populus iste qui tecum est: ultra vires tuas est negotium, solus illud non poteris sustinere.
{18:18} You will be consumed by foolish efforts, both you and this people who are with you. The task is beyond your strength; you will not be able bear it alone.

{18:19} Sed audi verba mea atque consilia, et erit Deus tecum. Esto tu populo in his quæ ad Deum pertinent, ut referas quæ dicuntur ad eum:
{18:19} But listen to my words and counsels, and then God will be with you. Be available to the people in that which pertains to God, so as to refer what they say to him,

{18:20} ostendasque populo ceremonias et ritum colendi, viamque per quam ingredi debeant, et opus quod facere debeant.
{18:20} and to reveal to the people the ceremonies, and the rituals of worship, and the way by which they should progress, and the work that they should do.

{18:21} Provide autem de omni plebe viros potentes, et timentes Deum, in quibus sit veritas, et qui oderint avaritiam, et constitue ex eis tribunos, et centuriones, et quinquagenarios, et decanos
{18:21} Then provide, from all of the people, men capable and fearing God, in whom there is truth and who hate avarice, and appoint from them tribunes, and leaders of hundreds, and of fifties, and of tens,

~ A leader of ten was not a leader over only ten men, but over ten men who were each head of a family. Also, why have a leader over fifty men and also over one hundred? My interpretation is that the leader over 50 was leader over 50 leaders of ten, and the leader over 100 was a leader over 100 leaders of 50. So the ten-leader governed ten men with wives and children, the fifty-leader governed 500 men by governing 50 leaders of 10 (50 x 10), and the hundred-leader governed 50,000 men (100 x 50 x 10).

~ Otherwise, there would be too many leaders for Moses to oversee, and too many for him to even find and appoint. There were over 600,000 men (Ex. 38:25) over the age of 20 (most with wives and children). So if a hundred-leader governed only 100 men, then there would be 6,000 of such leaders, plus 12,000 leaders of 50, plus 60,000 leaders of ten men. This approach seems unlikely and unworkable.

~ Using the other approach, there would be 12 leaders of one hundred, 1,200 leaders of 50, and 60,000 leaders of ten. This approach is more tenable and more practical. Also, the tribunes were not leaders over a thousand, but were like a court of appeals, to avoid unfairness or arbitrary judgments by the leaders. The tribunes governed the other leaders.

{18:22} qui iudicent populum omni tempore: quidquid autem maius fuerit, referant ad te, et ipsi minora tantummodo iudicent: leviusque sit tibi, partito in alios onere.
{18:22} who may judge the people at all times. Then, when anything greater will have occurred, they may refer it to you, and let them judge the lesser matters only. And so it may be lighter for you, the burden being divided among others.

{18:23} Si hoc feceris, implebis imperium Dei, et præcepta eius poteris sustentare: et omnis hic populus revertetur ad loca sua cum pace.
{18:23} If you will do this, you will fulfill the orders of God, and you will be able to uphold his precepts. And this entire people will return to their places in peace.”

{18:24} Quibus auditis, Moyses fecit omnia quæ ille suggesserat.
{18:24} Having heard this, Moses did everything that he had suggested to him.

{18:25} Et electis viris strenuis de cuncto Israel, constituit eos principes populi, tribunos, et centuriones, et quinquagenarios, et decanos.
{18:25} And choosing virtuous men from all of Israel, he appointed them as leaders of the people: tribunes, and leaders of hundreds, and of fifties, and of tens.

{18:26} Qui iudicabant plebem omni tempore: quidquid autem gravius erat, referebant ad eum, faciliora tantummodo iudicantes.
{18:26} And they judged the people at all times. But whatever was more serious, they referred to him, and they judged easier matters only.

{18:27} Dimisitque cognatum suum: qui reversus abiit in terram suam.
{18:27} And he dismissed his kinsman, who, turning back, went to his own land.

[Exodus 19]
[Exodus 19]

{19:1} Mense tertio egressionis Israel de Terra Ægypti, in die hac venerunt in solitudinem Sinai.
{19:1} In the third month of the departure of Israel from the land of Egypt, in that day, they arrived in the wilderness of Sinai.

{19:2} Nam profecti de Raphidim, et pervenientes usque in desertum Sinai, castrametati sunt in eodem loco, ibique Israel fixit tentoria e regione montis.
{19:2} Thus, setting out from Raphidim, and going directly to the desert of Sinai, they encamped in the same place, and there Israel pitched their tents away from the region of the mountain.

{19:3} Moyses autem ascendit ad Deum, vocavitque eum Dominus de monte, et ait: Hæc dices domui Iacob, et annunciabis filiis Israel:
{19:3} Then Moses ascended to God. And the Lord called to him from the mountain, and he said: “This you shall say to the house of Jacob, and announce to the sons of Israel:

{19:4} Vos ipsi vidistis, quæ fecerim Ægyptiis, quo modo portaverim vos super alas aquilarum, et assumpserim mihi.
{19:4} ‘You have seen what I have done to the Egyptians, in what way I carried you upon the wings of eagles and how I have taken you for myself.

{19:5} Si ergo audieritis vocem meam, et custodieritis pactum meum, eritis mihi in peculium de cunctis populis: mea est enim omnis terra.
{19:5} If, therefore, you will hear my voice, and you will keep my covenant, you will be to me a particular possession out of all people. For all the earth is mine.

{19:6} Et vos eritis mihi in regnum sacerdotale, et gens sancta. Hæc sunt verba quæ loqueris ad filios Israel.
{19:6} And you will be to me a priestly kingdom and a holy nation.’ These are the words that you will speak to the sons of Israel.”

{19:7} Venit Moyses: et convocatis maioribus natu populi, exposuit omnes sermones quos mandaverat Dominus.
{19:7} Moses went, and calling together those greater by birth among the people, he set forth all the words which the Lord had commanded.

{19:8} Responditque omnis populus simul: Cuncta quæ locutus est Dominus, faciemus. Cumque retulisset Moyses verba populi ad Dominum,
{19:8} And all the people responded together: “Everything that the Lord has spoken, we shall do.” And when Moses had related the words of the people to the Lord,

{19:9} ait ei Dominus: Iam nunc veniam ad te in caligine nubis, ut audiat me populus loquentem ad te, et credat tibi in perpetuum. Nunciavit ergo Moyses verba populi ad Dominum.
{19:9} the Lord said to him: “Soon now, I will come to you in the mist of a cloud, so that the people may hear me speaking to you, and so that they may believe you continuously.” Therefore, Moses reported the words of the people to the Lord,

{19:10} Qui dixit ei: Vade ad populum, et sanctifica illos hodie, et cras, laventque vestimenta sua.
{19:10} who said to him: “Go to the people, and sanctify them today, and tomorrow, and let them wash their garments.

{19:11} Et sint parati in diem tertium: in die enim tertia descendet Dominus coram omni plebe super montem Sinai.
{19:11} And let them be prepared on the third day. For on the third day, the Lord will descend, in the sight of all the people, over Mount Sinai.

{19:12} Constituesque terminos populo per circuitum, et dices ad eos: Cavete ne ascendatis in montem, nec tangatis fines illius: omnis qui tetigerit montem, morte morietur.
{19:12} And you will establish limits for the people all around, and you will say to them: ‘Take care not to ascend to the mountain, and that you do not touch its parts. All who touch the mountain, shall die a death.’

{19:13} Manus non tanget eum, sed lapidibus opprimetur, aut confodietur iaculis: sive iumentum fuerit, sive homo, non vivet. Cum cœperit clangere buccina, tunc ascendant in montem.
{19:13} Hands shall not touch him, but he shall be crushed with stones, or he shall be pierced through with darts. Whether it be a beast or a man, he shall not live. For when the trumpet begins to sound, perhaps they might go up toward the mountain.”

~ Verse 12 has an order prohibiting the people from ascending the mountain under pain of death. Verse 13 is sometimes translated as if the sounding of the trumpet permits them to ascend. (Only on the last day, at the time of the general resurrection, does the sounding of the trumpet permit the faithful to ascend to God.) But, in the context of ancient times at Mount Sinai, the translation is that the sounding of the trumpet (and the other signs that cause the people to wonder) might cause them to ascend, i.e. out of curiosity and against God’s orders.

{19:14} Descenditque Moyses de monte ad populum, et sanctificavit eum. Cumque lavissent vestimenta sua,
{19:14} And Moses came down from the mountain to the people, and he sanctified them. And when they had washed their garments,

{19:15} ait ad eos: Estote parati in diem tertium, et ne appropinquetis uxoribus vestris.
{19:15} he said to them, “Be prepared on the third day, and do not draw near to your wives.”

~ The word ‘appropinquetis’ is here used as a euphemism, referring to marital relations.

{19:16} Iamque advenerat tertius dies, et mane inclaruerat: et ecce cœperunt audiri tonitrua, ac micare fulgura, et nubes densissima operire montem, clangorque buccinæ vehementius perstrepebat: et timuit populus qui erat in castris.
{19:16} And now, the third day arrived and the morning dawned. And behold, thunders began to be heard, and also lightning flashed, and a very dense cloud covered the mountain, and the noise of the trumpet resounded vehemently. And the people who were in the camp were fearful.

{19:17} Cumque eduxisset eos Moyses in occursum Dei de loco castrorum, steterunt ad radices montis.
{19:17} And when Moses had led them out to meet God, from the place of the camp, they stood at the base of the mountain.

{19:18} Totus autem mons Sinai fumabat: eo quod descendisset Dominus super eum in igne, et ascenderet fumus ex eo quasi de fornace: eratque omnis mons terribilis.
{19:18} Then all of Mount Sinai was smoking. For the Lord had descended over it with fire, and smoke ascended from it, as from a furnace. And the entire mountain was terrible.

{19:19} Et sonitus buccinæ paulatim crescebat in maius, et prolixius tendebatur: Moyses loquebatur, et Deus respondebat ei.
{19:19} And the sound of the trumpet gradually increased to be louder, and extended to be longer. Moses was speaking, and God was answering him.

{19:20} Descenditque Dominus super montem Sinai in ipso montis vertice, et vocavit Moysen in cacumen eius. Quo cum ascendisset,
{19:20} And the Lord descended over Mount Sinai, to the very top of the mountain, and he called Moses to its summit. And when he had ascended there,

{19:21} dixit ad eum: Descende, et contestare populum: ne forte velit transcendere terminos ad videndum Dominum, et pereat ex eis plurima multitudo.
{19:21} he said to him: “Descend, and call the people to witness, lest they might be willing to transgress the limits, so as to see the Lord, and a very great multitude of them might perish.

{19:22} Sacerdotes quoque qui accedunt ad Dominum, sanctificentur, ne percutiat eos.
{19:22} Likewise, the priests who approach toward the Lord, let them be sanctified, lest he strike them down.”

{19:23} Dixitque Moyses ad Dominum: Non poterit vulgus ascendere in montem Sinai: tu enim testificatus es, et iussisti, dicens: Pone terminos circa montem, et sanctifica illum.
{19:23} And Moses said to the Lord: “The people are not able to ascend to Mount Sinai. For you testified, and you commanded, saying: ‘Set limits around the mountain, and sanctify it.’ ”

{19:24} Cui ait Dominus: Vade, descende: ascendesque tu, et Aaron tecum: sacerdotes autem et populus ne transeant terminos, nec ascendant ad Dominum, ne forte interficiat illos.
{19:24} And the Lord said to him, “Go, descend. And you shall ascend, and Aaron with you. But let not the priests or the people transgress the limits, nor ascend to the Lord, lest perhaps he may put them to death.”

{19:25} Descenditque Moyses ad populum, et omnia narravit eis.
{19:25} And Moses descended to the people, and he explained everything to them.

[Exodus 20]
[Exodus 20]

{20:1} Locutusque est Dominus cunctos sermones hos:
{20:1} And the Lord spoke all these words:

{20:2} Ego sum Dominus Deus tuus, qui eduxi te de Terra Ægypti, de domo servitutis.
{20:2} “I am the Lord your God, who led you away from the land of Egypt, out of the house of servitude.

{20:3} Non habebis deos alienos coram me.
{20:3} You shall not have strange gods before me.

{20:4} Non facies tibi sculptile, neque omnem similitudinem quæ est in cælo desuper, et quæ in terra deorsum, nec eorum quæ sunt in aquis sub terra.
{20:4} You shall not make for yourself a graven image, nor a likeness of anything that is in heaven above or on earth below, nor of those things which are in the waters under the earth.

{20:5} Non adorabis ea, neque coles: ego sum Dominus Deus tuus fortis, zelotes, visitans iniquitatem patrum in filios, in tertiam et quartam generationem eorum qui oderunt me:
{20:5} You shall not adore them, nor shall you worship them. I am the Lord your God: strong, zealous, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the sons to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me,

{20:6} et faciens misericordiam in millia his qui diligunt me, et custodiunt præcepta mea.
{20:6} and showing mercy to thousands of those who love me and keep my precepts.

{20:7} Non assumes nomen Domini Dei tui in vanum. Nec enim habebit insontem Dominus eum qui assumpserit nomen Domini Dei sui frustra.
{20:7} You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain. For the Lord will not hold harmless one who takes the name of the Lord his God falsely.

{20:8} Memento ut diem Sabbati sanctifices.
{20:8} Remember that you are to sanctify the day of the Sabbath.

{20:9} Sex diebus operaberis, et facies omnia opera tua.
{20:9} For six days, you will work and accomplish all your tasks.

{20:10} Septimo autem die Sabbatum Domini Dei tui est: non facies omne opus in eo, tu, et filius tuus et filia tua, servus tuus et ancilla tua, iumentum tuum, et advena qui est intra portas tuas.
{20:10} But the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. You shall not do any work in it: you and your son and your daughter, your male servant and your female servant, your beast and the newcomer who is within your gates.

{20:11} Sex enim diebus fecit Dominus cælum et terram, et mare, et omnia quæ in eis sunt, et requievit in die septimo, idcirco benedixit Dominus diei Sabbati, et sanctificavit eum.
{20:11} For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and the sea, and all the things that are in them, and so he rested on the seventh day. For this reason, the Lord has blessed the day of the Sabbath and sanctified it.

{20:12} Honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, ut sis longævus super terram, quam Dominus Deus tuus dabit tibi.
{20:12} Honor your father and your mother, so that you may have a long life upon the land, which the Lord your God will give to you.

{20:13} Non occides.
{20:13} You shall not murder.

~ The word ‘occides’ can refer to killing, or more specifically to murdering. The ideal is to have a society where there is no killing at all (even without killing in war, or in law enforcement, or in self-defense), but the minimum requirement of the commandment is not to murder.

{20:14} Non mœchaberis.
{20:14} You shall not commit adultery.

{20:15} Non furtum facies.
{20:15} You shall not steal.

{20:16} Non loqueris contra proximum tuum falsum testimonium.
{20:16} You shall not speak false testimony against your neighbor.

{20:17} Non concupisces domum proximi tui: nec desiderabis uxorem eius, non servum, non ancillam, non bovem, non asinum, nec omnia quæ illius sunt.
{20:17} You shall not covet the house of your neighbor; neither shall you desire his wife, nor male servant, nor female servant, nor ox, nor donkey, nor anything that is his.”

{20:18} Cunctus autem populus videbat voces et lampades, et sonitum buccinæ, montemque fumantem: et perterriti ac pavore concussi, steterunt procul,
{20:18} Then all the people considered the voices, and the lights, and the sound of the trumpet, and the smoking mountain. And being terrified and struck with fear, they stood at a distance,

{20:19} dicentes Moysi: Loquere tu nobis, et audiemus: non loquatur nobis Dominus, ne forte moriamur.
{20:19} saying to Moses: “Speak to us, and we will listen. Let not the Lord speak to us, lest perhaps we may die.”

{20:20} Et ait Moyses ad populum: Nolite timere: ut enim probaret vos venit Deus, et ut terror illius esset in vobis, et non peccaretis.
{20:20} And Moses said to the people: “Do not be afraid. For God came in order to test you, and so that the dread of him might be with you, and you would not sin.”

{20:21} Stetitque populus de longe. Moyses autem accessit ad caliginem in qua erat Deus.
{20:21} And the people stood far away. But Moses approached toward the mist, in which was God.

{20:22} Dixit præterea Dominus ad Moysen: Hæc dices filiis Israel: Vos vidistis quod de cælo locutus sim vobis.
{20:22} Thereafter, the Lord said to Moses: “This you shall say to the sons of Israel: You have seen that I have spoken to you from heaven.

{20:23} Non facietis deos argenteos, nec deos aureos facietis vobis.
{20:23} You shall not make gods of silver, nor shall you make for yourselves gods of gold.

{20:24} Altare de terra facietis mihi, et offeretis super eo holocausta et pacifica vestra, oves vestras et boves in omni loco in quo memoria fuerit nominis mei: veniam ad te, et benedicam tibi.
{20:24} You shall make an altar from the earth for me, and you shall offer upon it your holocausts and peace-offerings, your sheep and oxen, in every place where the memory of my name shall be. I will come to you, and I will bless you.

{20:25} Quod si altare lapideum feceris mihi, non ædificabis illud de sectis lapidibus: si enim levaveris cultrum super eo, polluetur.
{20:25} And if you make an altar of stone for me, you shall not build it from cut stones; for if you lift up a tool over it, it will be defiled.

{20:26} Non ascendes per gradus ad altare meum, ne reveletur turpitudo tua.
{20:26} You shall not ascend by steps to my altar, lest your nakedness be revealed.”

[Exodus 21]
[Exodus 21]

{21:1} Hæc sunt iudicia quæ propones eis.
{21:1} “These are the judgments which you shall place before them:

{21:2} Si emeris servum Hebræum, sex annis serviet tibi: in septimo egredietur liber gratis.
{21:2} If you buy a Hebrew servant, six years shall he serve you; in the seventh, he shall depart freely, without charge.

{21:3} Cum quali veste intraverit, cum tali exeat: si habens uxorem, et uxor egredietur simul.
{21:3} With whatever clothing he arrived, with the like let him depart. If he has a wife, his wife also shall depart, at the same time.

{21:4} Sin autem dominus dederit illi uxorem, et pepererit filios et filias: mulier et liberi eius erunt domini sui, ipse vero exibit cum vestitu suo.
{21:4} But if his lord gave him a wife, and she has borne sons and daughters, the woman and her children shall belong to her lord. Yet still, he himself will go out with his clothing.

{21:5} Quod si dixerit servus: Diligo dominum meum et uxorem ac liberos, non egrediar liber:
{21:5} And if the servant will say, ‘I love my lord, and my wife and children, I will not depart freely,’

{21:6} offeret eum dominus diis, et applicabitur ad ostium et postes, perforabitque aurem eius subula: et erit ei servus in sæculum.
{21:6} then his lord shall make an offering for him to the heavens, and it shall be applied to the door and the posts, and he will pierce his ear with an awl. And he shall be his servant in perpetuity.

~ This verse is translated somewhat more loosely, so that the meaning is clearer. The master of the household makes an offering (animal sacrifice) on behalf of his servant, then he applies some of its blood (in the manner of the Passover) to the door posts. The offering cannot be understood as to ‘the gods’ because the previous verses forbid sacrifices to other gods. The word ‘diis’ has a broader meaning than the word ‘gods.’ It refers to things that are divine, i.e. to the heavens.

{21:7} Si quis vendiderit filiam suam in famulam, non egredietur sicut ancillæ exire consueverunt.
{21:7} If anyone sells his daughter to be a servant, she shall not depart as a female servant is accustomed to go out.

{21:8} Si displicuerit oculis domini sui cui tradita fuerat, dimittet eam: populo autem alieno vendendi non habebit potestatem, si spreverit eam.
{21:8} If she displeases the eyes of her lord, to whom she had been delivered, he shall dismiss her. But he shall have no authority to sell her to a foreign people, even if he despises her.

{21:9} Sin autem filio suo desponderit eam, iuxta morem filiarum faciet illi.
{21:9} But if he has betrothed her to his son, he shall treat her according to the custom with daughters.

{21:10} Quod si alteram ei acceperit, providebit puellæ nuptias, et vestimenta, et pretium pudicitiæ non negabit.
{21:10} And if he takes another for him, he shall provide to the maiden a marriage, and clothing, and he shall not refuse the price of her chastity.

{21:11} Si tria ista non fecerit, egredietur gratis absque pecunia.
{21:11} If he does not do these three things, she shall depart freely, without money.

{21:12} Qui percusserit hominem volens occidere, morte moriatur.
{21:12} Whoever strikes a man, intending to murder, shall be put to death.

~ Or, more literally: ‘shall die a death.’

{21:13} Qui autem non est insidiatus, sed Deus illum tradidit in manus eius: constituam tibi locum in quem fugere debeat.
{21:13} But if he did not lie in wait for him, but God delivered him into his hands, then I will appoint for you a place to which he must flee.

{21:14} Si quis per industriam occiderit proximum suum, et per insidias: ab altari meo evelles eum, ut moriatur.
{21:14} If someone murders his neighbor with deliberation, by lying in wait, you shall tear him away from my altar, so that he may die.

{21:15} Qui percusserit patrem suum aut matrem, morte moriatur.
{21:15} Whoever strikes his father or mother shall die a death.

{21:16} Qui furatus fuerit hominem, et vendiderit eum, convictus noxæ, morte moriatur.
{21:16} Whoever will have stolen a man and sold him, having been convicted of the crime, shall be put to death.

{21:17} Qui maledixerit patri suo, vel matri, morte moriatur.
{21:17} Whoever speaks evil of his father or mother shall die a death.

{21:18} Si rixati fuerint viri, et percusserit alter proximum suum lapide vel pugno, et ille mortuus non fuerit, sed iacuerit in lectulo:
{21:18} If men will have quarreled, and one of them has struck his neighbor with a stone or a fist, and he does not die, but lies in bed,

{21:19} si surrexerit, et ambulaverit foris super baculum suum, innocens erit qui percusserit, ita tamen ut operas eius, et impensas in medicos restituat.
{21:19} if he gets up again and can walk outside on his staff, he who struck him will be innocent, but only if he makes sufficient restitution for his deeds and for the cost of the physicians.

{21:20} Qui percusserit servum suum, vel ancillam virga, et mortui fuerint in manibus eius, criminis reus erit.
{21:20} Whoever strikes his male or female servant with a staff, and if they have died by his hands, he shall be guilty of a crime.

{21:21} Sin autem uno die vel duobus supervixerit, non subiacebit pœnæ, quia pecunia illius est.
{21:21} But if he survives for one day or two, he shall not be subject to punishment, because it is his money.

~ He is still guilty of the crime, as verse 20 states, but there will not be a financial penalty.

{21:22} Si rixati fuerint viri, et percusserit quis mulierem prægnantem, et abortivum quidem fecerit, sed ipsa vixerit: subiacebit damno quantum maritus mulieris expetierit, et arbitri iudicaverint.
{21:22} If men will have quarreled, and one of them has struck a pregnant woman, and as a result she miscarries, but she herself survives, he shall be subject to as much damage as the husband of the woman shall petition from him, or as arbitrators shall judge.

{21:23} Sin autem mors eius fuerit subsecuta, reddet animam pro anima,
{21:23} But if her death will have followed, he will repay a life for a life,

{21:24} oculum pro oculo, dentem pro dente, manum pro manu, pedem pro pede,
{21:24} an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a hand for a hand, a foot for a foot,

{21:25} adustionem pro adustione, vulnus pro vulnere, livorem pro livore.
{21:25} a scrape for a scrape, a wound for a wound, a bruise for a bruise.

{21:26} Si percusserit quispiam oculum servi sui aut ancillæ, et luscos eos fecerit, dimittet eos liberos pro oculo quem eruit.
{21:26} If anyone will have struck the eye of his male or female servant, having left them with one eye, he shall release them freely, because of the eye that he has put out.

{21:27} Dentem quoque si excusserit servo vel ancillæ suæ, similiter dimittet eos liberos.
{21:27} Likewise, if he knocks out a tooth of his male or female servant, he shall similarly release them freely.

{21:28} Si bos cornu percusserit virum aut mulierem, et mortui fuerint, lapidibus obruetur: et non comedentur carnes eius, dominus quoque bovis innocens erit.
{21:28} If an ox has struck a man or a woman with his horn, and if they die, it shall be stoned. And its flesh shall not be eaten; also, the owner of the ox will be innocent.

{21:29} Quod si bos cornupeta fuerit ab heri et nudiustertius, et contestati sunt dominum eius, nec recluserit eum, occideritque virum aut mulierem: et bos lapidibus obruetur, et dominum eius occident.
{21:29} But if the ox had been pushing with his horn, from yesterday and the day before, and they warned his owner, but he did not confine it, and it will have killed a man or a woman, then the ox shall be stoned, and his owner shall be killed.

{21:30} Quod si pretium fuerit ei impositum, dabit pro anima sua quidquid fuerit postulatus.
{21:30} But if they have imposed a price on him, he shall give, in exchange for his life, whatever is asked.

{21:31} Filium quoque et filiam si cornu percusserit, simili sententiæ subiacebit.
{21:31} Likewise, if it has struck a son or a daughter with its horns, it shall be subject to a similar verdict.

{21:32} Si servum, ancillamque invaserit, triginta siclos argenti domino dabit, bos vero lapidibus opprimetur.
{21:32} If it attacks a male or female servant, he shall give thirty shekels of silver to their lord, yet truly the ox shall be stoned.

{21:33} Si quis aperuerit cisternam, et foderit, et non operuerit eam, cecideritque bos aut asinus in eam,
{21:33} If a man digs or opens a cistern, and does not cover it, and an ox or a donkey falls into it,

{21:34} reddet dominus cisternæ pretium iumentorum: quod autem mortuum est, ipsius erit.
{21:34} then the owner of the cistern shall repay the price of the beasts, and what is dead will belong to him.

{21:35} Si bos alienus bovem alterius vulneraverit, et ille mortuus fuerit: vendent bovem vivum, et divident pretium, cadaver autem mortui inter se dispertient.
{21:35} If the ox of a stranger wounds the ox of another, and it has died, then they shall sell the live ox and divide the price, but the carcass of the dead one they shall distribute between them.

{21:36} Sin autem sciebat quod bos cornupeta esset ab heri et nudiustertius, et non custodivit eum dominus suus: reddet bovem pro bove, et cadaver integrum accipiet.
{21:36} But if he knew that his ox had pushed with its horns, yesterday and the day before, and its owner did not confine it, then he shall repay an ox for an ox, and he will receive the whole carcass.”

[Exodus 22]
[Exodus 22]

{22:1} Si quis furatus fuerit bovem, aut ovem, et occiderit vel vendiderit: quinque boves pro uno bove restituet, et quattuor oves pro una ove.
{22:1} “If anyone will have stolen an ox or a sheep, and if he kills it or sells it, then he will restore five oxen for one ox, and four sheep for one sheep.

{22:2} Si effringens fur domum sive suffodiens fuerit inventus, et accepto vulnere mortuus fuerit: percussor non erit reus sanguinis.
{22:2} If a thief will have been discovered breaking into a house, or digging under it, and he has received a mortal wound, he who struck him down will not be guilty of blood.

{22:3} Quod si orto sole hoc fecerit, homicidium perpetravit, et ipse morietur. Si non habuerit quod pro furto reddat, ipse venundabitur.
{22:3} But if he did this when the sun was risen, he has perpetrated a homicide, and he shall die. If he does not have the means to make restitution for the theft, he shall be sold.

{22:4} Si inventum fuerit apud eum quod furatus est, vivens, sive bos, sive asinus, sive ovis: duplum restituet.
{22:4} If whatever he stole should be found with him, a living thing, either an ox, or a donkey, or a sheep, he shall repay double.

{22:5} Si læserit quispiam agrum vel vineam, et dimiserit iumentum suum ut depascatur aliena: quidquid optimum habuerit in agro suo, vel in vinea, pro damni æstimatione restituet.
{22:5} If there is any damage to a field or a vineyard, when he has released his cattle to pasture on the land of a stranger, he shall repay the best of what he has in his own field, or in his own vineyard, according to the estimation of the damage.

{22:6} Si egressus ignis invenerit spinas, et comprehenderit acervos frugum, sive stantes segetes in agris, reddet damnum qui ignem succenderit.
{22:6} If a fire will have been discovered departing from brush, and taking hold in stacks of grain, or in crops standing in the fields, whoever ignited the fire shall repay the damages.

{22:7} Si quis commendaverit amico pecuniam, aut vas in custodiam, et ab eo, qui susceperat, furto ablata fuerint: si invenitur fur, duplum reddet:
{22:7} If anyone will have entrusted money, or a container, to his friend to keep, and if these have been stolen from the one who received them: if the thief is found, he shall repay double.

{22:8} si latet fur, dominus domus applicabitur ad deos, et iurabit quod non extenderit manum in rem proximi sui,
{22:8} If the thief is unknown, the lord of the house will be brought before the heavens to swear that he did not lay his hand on the goods of his neighbor,

{22:9} ad perpetrandam fraudem, tam in bove, quam in asino, et ove ac vestimento, et quidquid damnum inferre potest: ad deos utriusque causa perveniet: et si illi iudicaverit, duplum restituet proximo suo.
{22:9} so as to perpetrate any fraud, such as with an ox, or a donkey, or a sheep, or clothing, nor to do anything that would be able to cause damage. The case of both shall be brought before the heavens. And if they give judgment against him, he shall repay double to his neighbor.

{22:10} Si quis commendaverit proximo suo asinum, bovem, ovem, et omne iumentum ad custodiam, et mortuum fuerit, aut debilitatum, vel captum ab hostibus, nullusque hoc viderit:
{22:10} If anyone will have entrusted a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to the keeping of his neighbor, and it will have died, or become disabled, or have been captured by enemies, and no one saw it,

{22:11} iusiurandum erit in medio, quod non extenderit manum ad rem proximi sui: suscipietque dominus iuramentum, et ille reddere non cogetur.
{22:11} then there shall be an oath between them, that he did not lay his hand on the goods of his neighbor. And the owner shall accept the oath, and he will not be compelled to make restitution.

{22:12} Quod si furto ablatum fuerit, restituet damnum domino.
{22:12} But if it will have been taken away by theft, he shall repay the damages to the owner.

{22:13} Si comestum a bestia, deferat ad eum quod occisum est, et non restituet.
{22:13} If it has been eaten by a wild beast, let him carry what was killed to him, and then he shall not make restitution.

{22:14} Qui a proximo suo quidquam horum mutuo postulaverit, et debilitatum aut mortuum fuerit domino non præsente, reddere compelletur.
{22:14} If anyone borrows from his neighbor any of these things, and it has died or been disabled when the owner was not present, he shall be compelled to make restitution.

{22:15} Quod si impræsentiarum dominus fuerit, non restituet, maxime si conductum venerat pro mercede operis sui.
{22:15} But if the owner was present, he shall not make restitution, especially if it had been brought for hired work.

{22:16} Si seduxerit quis virginem necdum desponsatam, dormieritque cum ea: dotabit eam, et habebit eam uxorem.
{22:16} If a man has led astray a virgin not yet betrothed, and he has slept with her, he shall pay her dowry and have her as a wife.

{22:17} Si pater virginis dare noluerit, reddet pecuniam iuxta modum dotis, quam virgines accipere consueverunt.
{22:17} If the father of the virgin is not willing to give her, he shall pay money according to manner of a dowry, which virgins are accustomed to receive.

{22:18} Maleficos non patieris vivere.
{22:18} You shall not permit practitioners of the black arts to live.

~ Literally, the word ‘maleficos’ means ‘evil fig trees.’ It is generally used to refer to those who engage in religious or pagan or occult practices for the purpose of doing evil.

{22:19} Qui coierit cum iumento, morte moriatur.
{22:19} Whoever has sexual intercourse with an animal shall be put to death.

{22:20} Qui immolat diis, occidetur, præterquam Domino soli.
{22:20} Whoever immolates to gods, other than to the Lord, shall be killed.

{22:21} Advenam non contristabis, neque affliges eum: advenæ enim et ipsi fuistis in Terra Ægypti.
{22:21} You shall not harass the newcomer, nor shall you afflict him. For you yourselves were once newcomers in the land of Egypt.

{22:22} Viduæ et pupillo non nocebitis.
{22:22} You shall not harm a widow or an orphan.

{22:23} Si læseritis eos, vociferabuntur ad me, et ego audiam clamorem eorum:
{22:23} If you hurt them, they will cry out to me, and I will hear their cry.

{22:24} et indignabitur furor meus, percutiamque vos gladio, et erunt uxores vestræ viduæ, et filii vestri pupilli.
{22:24} And my fury will be enraged, and I will strike you down with the sword. And your wives will become widows, and your sons will become orphans.

{22:25} Si pecuniam mutuam dederis populo meo pauperi qui habitat tecum, non urgebis eum quasi exactor, nec usuris opprimes.
{22:25} If you lend money to the poor of my people who live among you, you shall not coerce them like a collector, nor oppress them with usury.

{22:26} Si pignus a proximo tuo acceperis vestimentum, ante solis occasum reddes ei.
{22:26} If you take a garment from your neighbor as a pledge, you shall return it to him again before the setting of the sun.

{22:27} Ipsum enim est solum, quo operitur, indumentum carnis eius, nec habet aliud in quo dormiat: si clamaverit ad me, exaudiam eum, quia misericors sum.
{22:27} For it is all that he has to cover himself, to clothe his body; nor does he have anything else in which to sleep. If he cries out to me, I will hear him, because I am compassionate.

{22:28} Diis non detrahes, et principi populi tui non maledices.
{22:28} You shall not disparage the heavens, and you shall not speak evil of the leader of your people.

{22:29} Decimas tuas et primitias tuas non tardabis reddere, primogenitum filiorum tuorum dabis mihi.
{22:29} You shall not delay in paying your tithes and your first-fruits. You shall give the firstborn of your sons to me.

{22:30} De bobus quoque, et ovibus similiter facies: septem diebus sit cum matre sua, die octava reddes illum mihi.
{22:30} You shall do likewise with those of the oxen and the sheep. For seven days, let it be with its mother; on the eighth day you shall repay it to me.

{22:31} Viri sancti eritis mihi: carnem, quæ a bestiis fuerit prægustata, non comedetis, sed proiicietis canibus.
{22:31} You shall be holy men for me. The flesh, from which beasts will have tasted, you shall not eat, but you will throw it to the dogs.”

[Exodus 23]
[Exodus 23]

{23:1} Non suscipies vocem mendacii: nec iunges manum tuam ut pro impio dicas falsum testimonium.
{23:1} “You shall not accept a lying voice. Neither shall you join your hand so as to give false testimony on behalf of the impious.

{23:2} Non sequeris turbam ad faciendum malum: nec in iudicio, plurimorum acquiesces sententiæ, ut a vero devies.
{23:2} You shall not follow the crowd in doing evil. Neither shall you go astray in judgment, by agreeing with the majority opinion, apart from the truth.

{23:3} Pauperis quoque non misereberis in iudicio.
{23:3} Likewise, you shall not show pity in judgment of the poor.

{23:4} Si occurreris bovi inimici tui, aut asino erranti, reduc ad eum.
{23:4} If you come across an ox or a donkey of your enemy, which has gone astray, lead it back to him.

{23:5} Si videris asinum odientis te iacere sub onere, non pertransibis, sed sublevabis cum eo.
{23:5} If you see the donkey of one who hates you, fallen under its burden, you shall not pass by without lifting it up with him.

{23:6} Non declinabis in iudicium pauperis.
{23:6} You shall not deviate in judgment of the poor.

{23:7} Mendacium fugies. Insontem et iustum non occides: quia aversor impium.
{23:7} You shall flee from lies. The innocent and the just you shall not kill. For I shun the impious.

{23:8} Nec accipies munera, quæ etiam excæcant prudentes, et subvertunt verba iustorum.
{23:8} Neither shall you accept bribes, which blind even the prudent and subvert the words of the just.

{23:9} Peregrino molestus non eris. Scitis enim advenarum animas: quia et ipsi peregrini fuistis in Terra Ægypti.
{23:9} You shall not harass a sojourner, for you know the life of a newcomer. For you yourselves also were sojourners in the land of Egypt.

{23:10} Sex annis seminabis terram tuam, et congregabis fruges eius.
{23:10} For six years, you shall sow your land and gather its produce.

{23:11} Anno autem septimo dimittes eam, et requiescere facies, ut comedant pauperes populi tui: et quidquid reliquum fuerit, edant bestiæ agri: ita facies in vinea et in oliveto tuo.
{23:11} But in the seventh year, you shall release it and cause it to rest, so that the poor of your people may eat. And whatever remains, let the beasts of the field eat it. So shall you do with your vineyard and your olive grove.

{23:12} Sex diebus operaberis: septimo die cessabis, ut requiescat bos et asinus tuus: et refrigeretur filius ancillæ tuæ, et advena.
{23:12} For six days, you shall work. On the seventh day, you shall cease, so that your ox and your donkey may rest, and so that the newcomer and the son of your handmaid may be refreshed.

{23:13} Omnia quæ dixi vobis, custodite. Et per nomen externorum deorum non iurabitis, neque audietur ex ore vestro.
{23:13} Preserve all that I have said to you. And by the names of foreign gods you shall not swear; neither shall these be heard from your mouth.

{23:14} Tribus vicibus per singulos annos mihi festa celebrabitis.
{23:14} Three times in each year, you shall celebrate feasts to me.

{23:15} Sollemnitatem azymorum custodies. Septem diebus comedes azyma, sicut præcepi tibi, tempore mensis novorum, quando egressus es de Ægypto: non apparebis in conspectu meo vacuus.
{23:15} You shall keep the solemnity of unleavened bread. For seven days you shall eat unleavened bread, just as I instructed you, at the time of the month of new grain, when you departed from Egypt. You shall not appear empty-handed in my sight,

{23:16} Et sollemnitatem messis primitivorum operis tui, quæcumque seminaveris in agro. Sollemnitatem quoque in exitu anni, quando congregaveris omnes fruges tuas de agro.
{23:16} for it is the solemnity of the harvest of the first-fruits of your work, of whatever you have sown in the field. Likewise, it is a solemnity at the end of the season, when you will have gathered in all your crops from the field.

{23:17} Ter in anno apparebit omne masculinum tuum coram Domino Deo tuo.
{23:17} Three times a year, all your males shall appear before the Lord your God.

{23:18} Non immolabis super fermento sanguinem victimæ meæ, nec remanebit adeps sollemnitatis meæ usque mane.
{23:18} You shall not immolate the blood of my victim over leaven, nor shall the fat of my solemnity remain until morning.

{23:19} Primitias frugum terræ tuæ deferes in domum Domini Dei tui. Non coques hœdum in lacte matris suæ.
{23:19} You shall carry the first grain of the land to the house of the Lord your God. You shall not cook a young goat in the milk of its mother.

{23:20} Ecce ego mittam Angelum meum, qui præcedat te, et custodiat in via, et introducat in locum quem paravi.
{23:20} Behold, I will send my Angel, who will go before you, and preserve you on your journey, and lead you into the place that I have prepared.

{23:21} Observa eum, et audi vocem eius, nec contemnendum putes: quia non dimittet cum peccaveris, et est nomen meum in illo.
{23:21} Heed him, and hear his voice, and do not hold him in disregard. For he will not release you when you have sinned, and my name is in him.

{23:22} Quod si audieris vocem eius, et feceris omnia quæ loquor, inimicus ero inimicis tuis, et affligam affligentes te.
{23:22} But if you listen to his voice and do all that I say, I will be an enemy to your enemies, and I will afflict those who afflict you.

{23:23} Præcedetque te Angelus meus, et introducet te ad Amorrhæum, et Hethæum, et Pherezæum, Chananæumque, et Hevæum, et Iebusæum, quos ego conteram.
{23:23} And my Angel will go before you, and he will bring you to the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Canaanite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, whom I will crush.

{23:24} Non adorabis deos eorum, nec coles eos: non facies opera eorum, sed destrues eos, et confringes statuas eorum.
{23:24} You shall not adore their gods, nor worship them. You shall not do their works, but you shall destroy them and break apart their statues.

{23:25} Servietisque Domino Deo vestro, ut benedicam panibus tuis et aquis, et auferam infirmitatem de medio tui.
{23:25} And you shall serve the Lord your God, so that I may bless your bread and your waters, and so that I may take away sickness from your midst.

{23:26} Non erit infœcunda, nec sterilis in terra tua: numerum dierum tuorum implebo.
{23:26} There will not be fruitless or barren ones in your land. I will fill up the number of your days.

{23:27} Terrorem meum mittam in præcursum tuum, et occidam omnem populum, ad quem ingredieris: cunctorumque inimicorum tuorum coram te terga vertam:
{23:27} I will send my terror to run ahead of you, and I will kill all the people to whom you will enter. And I will turn the backs of all your enemies before you,

{23:28} emittens crabrones prius, qui fugabunt Hevæum, et Chananæum, et Hethæum, antequam introeas.
{23:28} sending wasps ahead, so that they will put to flight the Hivite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, before you enter.

{23:29} Non eiiciam eos a facie tua anno uno: ne terra in solitudinem redigatur, et crescant contra te bestiæ.
{23:29} I will not cast them out from your face in one year, lest the land be reduced to a wilderness and the wild beasts increase against you.

{23:30} Paulatim expellam eos de conspectu tuo, donec augearis, et possideas Terram.
{23:30} I will expel them little by little from your sight, until you have expanded and may possess the land.

{23:31} Ponam autem terminos tuos a Mari Rubro usque ad Mare Palæstinorum, et a deserto usque ad fluvium: tradam in manibus vestris habitatores Terræ, et eiiciam eos de conspectu vestro.
{23:31} Then I will set your limits to be from the Red Sea to the Sea of the Palestinians, and from the desert all the way to the river. I will deliver into your hands the inhabitants of the land, and I will cast them out from your sight.

{23:32} Non inibis cum eis fœdus, nec cum diis eorum.
{23:32} You shall not enter into a pact with them, nor with their gods.

{23:33} Non habitent in terra tua, ne forte peccare te faciant in me, si servieris diis eorum: quod tibi certe erit in scandalum.
{23:33} They may not live on your land, lest perhaps they may cause you to sin against me, if you serve their gods, which certainly would be a temptation for you.”

[Exodus 24]
[Exodus 24]

{24:1} Moysi quoque dixit: Ascende ad Dominum tu, et Aaron, Nadab, et Abiu, et septuaginta senes ex Israel, et adorabitis procul.
{24:1} He also said to Moses: “Ascend to the Lord, you and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy elders out of Israel, and adore from a distance.

{24:2} Solusque Moyses ascendet ad Dominum, et illi non appropinquabunt: nec populus ascendet cum eo.
{24:2} And only Moses will ascend to the Lord, and these shall not approach. Neither shall the people ascend with him.”

{24:3} Venit ergo Moyses et narravit plebi omnia verba Domini, atque iudicia: responditque omnis populus una voce: Omnia verba Domini, quæ locutus est, faciemus.
{24:3} Therefore, Moses went and explained to the people all the words of the Lord, as well as the judgments. And all the people responded with one voice: “We will do all the words of the Lord, which he has spoken.”

{24:4} Scripsit autem Moyses universos sermones Domini: et mane consurgens ædificavit altare ad radices montis, et duodecim titulos per duodecim tribus Israel.
{24:4} Then Moses wrote all the words of the Lord. And rising up in the morning, he built an altar at the base of the mountain, with twelve titles according to the twelve tribes of Israel.

{24:5} Misitque iuvenes de filiis Israel, et obtulerunt holocausta, immolaveruntque victimas pacificas Domino, vitulos.
{24:5} And he sent youths from the sons of Israel, and they offered holocausts, and they immolated calves as peace-offerings to the Lord.

{24:6} Tulit itaque Moyses dimidiam partem sanguinis, et misit in crateras: partem autem residuam fudit super altare.
{24:6} And so Moses took one half part of the blood, and he put it into bowls. Then the remaining part he poured over the altar.

{24:7} Assumensque volumen fœderis, legit audiente populo: qui dixerunt: Omnia quæ locutus est Dominus, faciemus, et erimus obedientes.
{24:7} And taking up the book of the covenant, he read it in the hearing of the people, who said: “All that the Lord has spoken, we will do, and we will be obedient.”

{24:8} Ille vero sumptum sanguinem respersit in populum, et ait: Hic est sanguis fœderis quod pepigit Dominus vobiscum super cunctis sermonibus his.
{24:8} In truth, taking up the blood, he sprinkled it on the people, and he said, “This is the blood of the covenant, which the Lord has formed with you concerning all these words.”

{24:9} Ascenderuntque Moyses et Aaron, Nadab et Abiu, et septuaginta de senioribus Israel:
{24:9} And Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel ascended.

{24:10} et viderunt Deum Israel: et sub pedibus eius quasi opus lapidis sapphirini, et quasi cælum, cum serenum est.
{24:10} And they saw the God of Israel. And under his feet was something like a work of sapphire stone, or like the sky, when it is serene.

{24:11} Nec super eos qui procul recesserant de filiis Israel, misit manum suam, videruntque Deum, et comederunt, ac biberunt.
{24:11} Neither did he lay his hand upon those of the sons of Israel who were at a distance. And they saw God, and they ate and drank.

{24:12} Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen: Ascende ad me in montem, et esto ibi: daboque tibi tabulas lapideas, et legem ac mandata quæ scripsi: ut doceas eos.
{24:12} Then the Lord said to Moses: “Ascend to me on the mountain, and be there. And I will give to you tablets of stone, and the law and the commandments that I have written. So may you teach them.”

{24:13} Surrexerunt Moyses et Iosue minister eius: ascendensque Moyses in montem Dei,
{24:13} Moses rose up, with Joshua his minister. And Moses, ascending on the mountain of God,

{24:14} senioribus ait: Expectate hic donec revertamur ad vos. Habetis Aaron et Hur vobiscum: si quid natum fuerit quæstionis, referetis ad eos.
{24:14} said to the elders: “Wait here, until we return to you. You have Aaron and Hur with you. If any question arises, you shall refer it to them.”

{24:15} Cumque ascendisset Moyses, operuit nubes montem.
{24:15} And when Moses had ascended, a cloud covered the mountain.

{24:16} Et habitavit gloria Domini super Sinai, tegens illum nube sex diebus: septimo autem die vocavit eum de medio caliginis.
{24:16} And the glory of the Lord dwelt upon Sinai, covering it with a cloud for six days. And on the seventh day, he called to him from the middle of the mist.

{24:17} Erat autem species gloriæ Domini, quasi ignis ardens super verticem montis in conspectu filiorum Israel.
{24:17} Now the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a burning fire over the summit of the mountain in the sight of the sons of Israel.

{24:18} Ingressusque Moyses medium nebulæ, ascendit in montem: et fuit ibi quadraginta diebus, et quadraginta noctibus.
{24:18} And Moses, entering into the midst of the cloud, ascended the mountain. And he was there for forty days and forty nights.

~ The expression ‘forty days and forty nights’ is not an approximate length of time. Whenever the reference is to ‘days and nights,’ the length of time is being presented as an exact length of time. The interpretation may be figurative, but the grammatical meaning is an exact length of time.

[Exodus 25]
[Exodus 25]

{25:1} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens:
{25:1} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

{25:2} Loquere filiis Israel ut tollant mihi primitias ab omni homine qui offeret ultroneus, accipietis eas.
{25:2} “Speak to the sons of Israel, so that they may take the first-fruits to me. You shall accept these from every man who offers of his own accord.

{25:3} Hæc sunt autem quæ accipere debeatis: Aurum, et argentum, et æs,
{25:3} Now these are the things that you must accept: Gold, and silver, and brass,

{25:4} hyacinthum et purpuram, coccumque bis tinctum, et byssum, pilos caprarum,
{25:4} hyacinth and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine linen, the hair of goats,

{25:5} et pelles arietum rubricatas, pellesque ianthinas, et ligna setim:
{25:5} and the skins of rams, dyed red, and skins of violet, and setim wood,

{25:6} oleum ad luminaria concinnanda: aromata in unguentum, et thymiamata boni odoris:
{25:6} oil to prepare lights, aromatics as ointments and sweet-smelling incense,

{25:7} lapides onychinos, et gemmas ad ornandum ephod, ac rationale.
{25:7} onyx stones and gems to adorn the ephod as well as the breastplate.

{25:8} Facientque mihi sanctuarium, et habitabo in medio eorum:
{25:8} And they shall make a sanctuary for me, and I will live in their midst.

{25:9} iuxta omnem similitudinem tabernaculi quod ostendam tibi, et omnium vasorum in cultum eius: sicque facietis illud:
{25:9} According to exact likeness of the tabernacle, and all of the vessels for its rituals, that I will reveal to you, so shall you make it.

{25:10} Arcam de lignis setim compingite, cuius longitudo habeat duos et semis cubitos: latitudo, cubitum et dimidium: altitudo, cubitum similiter ac semissem.
{25:10} Join together an ark of setim wood, whose length shall hold two and one half cubits; the width, one and one half cubits; the height, likewise, one and one half cubits.

{25:11} Et deaurabis eam auro mundissimo intus et foris: faciesque supra, coronam auream per circuitum:
{25:11} And you shall overlay it with the finest gold, inside and out. And over it, you shall fashion a gold crown all around,

{25:12} et quattuor circulos aureos, quos pones per quattuor arcæ angulos: duo circuli sint in latere uno, et duo in altero.
{25:12} and four gold rings, which you shall set into the four corners of the ark. Let two rings be on one side and two on the other.

{25:13} Facies quoque vectes de lignis setim, et operies eos auro.
{25:13} Likewise, you shall make bars of setim wood and cover them with gold.

{25:14} Inducesque per circulos qui sunt in arcæ lateribus, ut portetur in eis:
{25:14} And you shall put them through the rings that are in the sides of the ark, so that it may be carried on them.

{25:15} qui semper erunt in circulis, nec umquam extrahentur ab eis.
{25:15} These must always be in the rings, neither shall they ever be drawn out of them.

{25:16} Ponesque in arca testificationem quam dabo tibi.
{25:16} And you shall place the testimony, which I will give to you, in the ark.

{25:17} Facies et propitiatorium de auro mundissimo: duos cubitos et dimidium tenebit longitudo eius, et cubitum ac semissem latitudo.
{25:17} You shall also make a propitiatory of the finest gold. Its length shall hold two and one half cubits, and the width, one and one half cubits.

{25:18} Duos quoque Cherubim aureos et productiles facies, ex utraque parte oraculi.
{25:18} Likewise, you shall make two Cherubim of formed gold, on both sides of the oracle.

{25:19} Cherub unus sit in latere uno, et alter in altero.
{25:19} Let one Cherub be on the one side, and the other be on the other.

{25:20} Utrumque latus propitiatorii tegant expandentes alas, et operientes oraculum, respiciantque se mutuo versis vultibus in propitiatorium quo operienda est arca,
{25:20} And let them cover both sides of the propitiatory, spreading their wings and covering the oracle, and let them look out toward one another, their faces being turned toward the propitiatory, with which the ark is to be covered,

{25:21} in qua pones testimonium quod dabo tibi.
{25:21} in which you will place the testimony that I will give to you.

{25:22} Inde præcipiam, et loquar ad te supra propitiatorium, ac de medio duorum Cherubim, qui erunt super arcam testimonii, cuncta quæ mandabo per te filiis Israel.
{25:22} From there, I will warn you and speak to you, above the propitiatory and from the middle of the two Cherubim, which will be over the ark of the testimony, about everything that I will command of the sons of Israel through you.

{25:23} Facies et mensam de lignis setim, habentem duos cubitos longitudinis, et in latitudine cubitum, et in altitudine cubitum et semissem.
{25:23} You shall also make a table of setim wood, having two cubits of length, and one cubit in width, and one cubit and one half cubits in height.

{25:24} Et inaurabis eam auro purissimo: faciesque illi labium aureum per circuitum,
{25:24} And you shall overlay it with the purest gold. And you shall make it with a gold lip all around,

{25:25} et ipsi labio coronam interrasilem altam quattuor digitis: et super illam, alteram coronam aureolam.
{25:25} and for the lip itself an engraved crown, four fingers high, and above it another little gold crown.

{25:26} Quattuor quoque circulos aureos præparabis, et pones eis in quattuor angulis eiusdem mensæ per singulos pedes.
{25:26} Likewise, you shall prepare four gold rings and set them in the four corners of the same table, over each foot.

{25:27} Subter coronam erunt circuli aurei, ut mittantur vectes per eos, et possit mensa portari.
{25:27} Under the crown, there shall be gold rings, so that the bars may be put through them and the table may be carried.

{25:28} Ipsos quoque vectes facies de lignis setim, et circumdabis auro ad subvehendam mensam.
{25:28} Likewise, the bars themselves you shall make of setim wood, and surround them with gold, to lift up the table.

{25:29} Parabis et acetabula, ac phialas, thuribula, et cyathos, in quibus offerenda sunt libamina, ex auro purissimo.
{25:29} You shall also prepare small cups, as well as bowls, censers, and measuring cups, with which the libations shall be offered, out of the purest gold.

{25:30} Et pones super mensam panes propositionis in conspectu meo semper.
{25:30} And you shall place upon the table the bread of the presence, in my sight always.

{25:31} Facies et candelabrum ductile de auro mundissimo, hastile eius, et calamos, scyphos, et sphærulas, ac lilia ex ipso procedentia.
{25:31} You shall also make a lampstand, formed from the finest gold, along with its stem and arms, its bowl and little spheres, as well as the lilies proceeding from it.

{25:32} Sex calami egredientur de lateribus, tres ex uno latere, et tres ex altero.
{25:32} Six branches shall go out from the sides: three out of one side and three out of the other.

{25:33} Tres scyphi quasi in nucis modum per calamos singulos, sphærulaque simul, et lilium: et tres similiter scyphi instar nucis in calamo altero, sphærulaque simul et lilium. Hoc erit opus sex calamorum, qui producendi sunt de hastili:
{25:33} Three bowls, the size of nuts, shall be on each branch, and a little sphere with it, and a lily. And three similar bowls, in the likeness of nuts, shall be on the other branch, and a little sphere with it, and a lily. This shall be the form of the six branches, which are to proceed from the stem.

{25:34} in ipso autem candelabro erunt quattuor scyphi in nucis modum, sphærulæque per singulos, et lilia.
{25:34} Then, in the lampstand itself, there shall be four bowls, the size of nuts, and each with little spheres and lilies.

{25:35} Sphærulæ sub duobus calamis per tria loca, qui simul sex fiunt procedentes de hastili uno.
{25:35} Little spheres under two branches in three places, which together make six, shall proceed from one of the stems.

{25:36} Et sphærulæ igitur et calami ex ipso erunt, universa ductilia de auro purissimo.
{25:36} Thus both the little spheres and the branches shall be made out of the same thing: entirely formed from the purest gold.

{25:37} Facies et lucernas septem, et pones eas super candelabrum, ut luceant ex adverso.
{25:37} You shall also make seven lamps, and you shall place them upon the lampstand, so that they may give light in every direction.

{25:38} Emunctoria quoque, et ubi quæ emuncta sunt extinguantur, fiant de auro purissimo.
{25:38} Likewise, the candle snuffers, and the place where the candles will be extinguished, shall be made from the purest gold.

{25:39} Omne pondus candelabri cum universis vasis suis habebit talentum auri purissimi.
{25:39} The entire weight of the candlestick, with all its parts, shall hold one talent of the purest gold.

~ A talent is about 30 kilograms or about 66 pounds.

{25:40} Inspice, et fac secundum exemplar quod tibi in monte monstratum est.
{25:40} Observe, and then make it according to the example that was shown to you on the mountain.”

~ The instructions for making the candelabra might seem complex and open to varying interpretation, but so, too, is the rest of Scripture.

[Exodus 26]
[Exodus 26]

{26:1} Tabernaculum vero ita facies: Decem cortinas de bysso retorta, et hyacintho, ac purpura, coccoque bis tincto, variatas opere plumario facies.
{26:1} “Truly, thus shall you make the tabernacle: You shall make ten curtains of fine twisted linen, and hyacinth as well as purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, with diverse embroidery.

{26:2} Longitudo cortinæ unius habebit vigintiocto cubitos: latitudo, quattuor cubitorum erit. Unius mensuræ fient universa tentoria.
{26:2} The length of one curtain shall have twenty-eight cubits. The width shall be four cubits. The entire set of curtains shall be of one measure.

{26:3} Quinque cortinæ sibi iungentur mutuo, et aliæ quinque nexu simili cohærebunt.
{26:3} Five curtains shall be joined to one another, and the other five shall be similarly coupled together.

{26:4} Ansulas hyacinthinas in lateribus ac summitatibus facies cortinarum, ut possint invicem copulari.
{26:4} You shall make loops of hyacinth on the sides at the edges of the curtains, so that they will be able to be joined to one another.

{26:5} Quinquagenas ansulas cortina habebit in utraque parte, ita insertas, ut ansa contra ansam veniat, et altera alteri possit aptari.
{26:5} A curtain shall have fifty loops on each of two sides, inserted in such a manner that loop may come against loop, and one can be fitted to the other.

{26:6} Facies et quinquaginta circulos aureos quibus cortinarum vela iungenda sunt, ut unum tabernaculum fiat.
{26:6} You shall also make fifty rings of gold, with which the veils of the curtains are to be joined, so that it shall be one tabernacle.

{26:7} Facies et saga cilicina undecim, ad operiendum tectum tabernaculi.
{26:7} You shall also make eleven haircloth canopies to cover the roof of the tabernacle.

{26:8} Longitudo sagi unius habebit triginta cubitos: et latitudo, quattuor: æqua erit mensura sagorum omnium.
{26:8} The length of one canopy shall hold thirty cubits, and the width, four. The measure of all the canopies shall be equal.

{26:9} E quibus quinque iunges seorsum, et sex sibi mutuo copulabis, ita ut sextum sagum in fronte tecti duplices.
{26:9} Five of these you shall join by themselves, and six of these you shall couple to one another, in such a manner as to double the sixth canopy at the front of the roof.

~ The joints of the joined eleven canopies were staggered (off-set) from the joints of the ten canopies. Thus the seams would not leak rain. Each seam of the ten curtains was covered by the middle of a canopy of the eleven. The canopy hung down further in both the front and the back as a result of the additional length, but it was folded over only in the front.

{26:10} Facies et quinquaginta ansas in ora sagi unius, ut coniungi cum altero queat: et quinquaginta ansas in ora sagi alterius, ut cum altero copuletur.
{26:10} You shall also make fifty loops along the edge of one canopy, so that it may be able to be joined with the other, and fifty loops along the edge of the other canopy, so that it may be coupled with the other.

{26:11} Facies et quinquaginta fibulas æneas, quibus iungantur ansæ, ut unum ex omnibus operimentum fiat.
{26:11} You shall also make fifty brass buckles, with which the loops may be joined, so that there may be one covering out of all.

~ The buckles are different method of attaching the loops than the rings. Using different methods of attachment, and different materials, one over another, provides greater strength and reliability in building anything.

{26:12} Quod autem superfuerit in sagis quæ parantur tecto, id est, unum sagum quod amplius est, ex medietate eius operies posteriora tabernaculi.
{26:12} Then what will be left over of the canopies which are prepared for the roof, that is, one canopy which is in excess, from half of it you shall cover the back of the tabernacle.

{26:13} Et cubitus ex una parte pendebit, et alter ex altera qui plus est in sagorum longitudine, utrumque latus tabernaculi protegens.
{26:13} And one cubit will hang down on one side, and another on the other side, which is more than the length of the curtains, protecting both sides of the tabernacle.

~ Here we learn that the ‘doubled’ canopy is not literally doubled in half, but folded so that one cubit of additional length is given to the overhang. This must have been folded toward the inside, rather than the outside, so that the fold would not collect rain.

{26:14} Facies et operimentum aliud tecto de pellibus arietum rubricatis: et super hoc rursum aliud operimentum de ianthinis pellibus.
{26:14} You shall also make another covering for the roof from the skins of rams, dyed-red, and above that again, another covering of violet-colored skins.

~ It is unclear from which animal these violet-colored skins came.

{26:15} Facies et tabulas stantes tabernaculi de lignis setim,
{26:15} You shall also make the standing panels of the tabernacle from setim wood.

{26:16} quæ singulæ denos cubitos in longitudine habeant, et in latitudine singulos ac semissem.
{26:16} Of these, each shall have ten cubits in length, and in width, one and one half.

{26:17} In lateribus tabulæ, duæ incastraturæ fient, quibus tabula alteri tabulæ connectatur: atque in hunc modum cunctæ tabulæ parabuntur.
{26:17} At the sides of the panels, there shall be made two dovetails, by which one panel may be connected to another panel; and in this way all the panels shall be prepared.

{26:18} Quarum viginti erunt in latere meridiano quod vergit ad Austrum.
{26:18} Of these, twenty shall be at the meridian, which lies toward the south.

{26:19} Quibus quadraginta bases argenteas fundes, ut binæ bases singulis tabulis per duos angulos subiiciantur.
{26:19} For these, you shall cast forty bases of silver, so that two bases will lie under each panel at its two corners.

{26:20} In latere quoque secundo tabernaculi quod vergit ad Aquilonem, viginti tabulæ erunt,
{26:20} Likewise, at the second side of the tabernacle, which lies to the north, there shall be twenty panels,

{26:21} quadraginta habentes bases argenteas: binæ bases singulis tabulis supponentur.
{26:21} having forty bases of silver; two bases shall support each panel.

{26:22} Ad occidentalem vero plagam tabernaculi facies sex tabulas,
{26:22} Truly, toward the western part of the tabernacle, you shall make six panels,

{26:23} et rursum alias duas quæ in angulis erigantur post tergum tabernaculi.
{26:23} and again another two, which will be raised at the corners, behind the back of the tabernacle.

~ The raised corners made the Tabernacle asymmetrical, so that the back corners were the highest part of the tent.

{26:24} Eruntque coniunctæ a deorsum usque sursum, et una omnes compago retinebit. Duabus quoque tabulis quæ in angulis ponendæ sunt, similis iunctura servabitur.
{26:24} And these shall be joined together from bottom to top, and one joint shall retain them all. Likewise, two of the panels, which will be set at the corners, shall be served by similar joints.

{26:25} Et erunt simul tabulæ octo, bases earum argenteæ sedecim, duabus basibus per unam tabulam supputatis.
{26:25} And together these will be eight panels, and their bases of silver, sixteen, counting two bases for each panel.

~ The west side had 8 panels, but the east only had 6, because the east end had the two panel (three royal cubit) opening for the width of the entrance. This entrance width of just under 5 feet, 2 inches, was needed to allow two men to enter side by side, carrying the ark and the tables for the Sanctuary.

{26:26} Facies et vectes de lignis setim quinque ad continendas tabulas in uno latere tabernaculi,
{26:26} You shall also make five bars of setim wood, to connect the panels on one side of the tabernacle,

{26:27} et quinque alios in altero, et eiusdem numeri ad occidentalem plagam:
{26:27} and five others on the other side, and the same number toward the western part.

{26:28} qui mittentur per medias tabulas a summo usque ad summum.
{26:28} These shall be set along the middle of the panels, from one end all the way to the other end.

~ Or, ‘through the middle of the panels.’

{26:29} Ipsas quoque tabulas deaurabis, et fundes in eis annulos aureos per quos vectes tabulata contineant: quos operies laminis aureis.
{26:29} Likewise, the panels themselves you shall overlay with gold, and you shall establish rings of gold in them, by which the bars of the panels may be connected. These you shall cover with layers of gold.

{26:30} Et eriges tabernaculum iuxta exemplar quod tibi in Monte monstratum est.
{26:30} And you shall raise the tabernacle according to the example which was shown to you on the mountain.

{26:31} Facies et velum de hyacintho, et purpura, coccoque bis tincto, et bysso retorta, opere plumario et pulchra varietate contextum:
{26:31} You shall also make a veil of hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine twisted linen, wrought with a diversity of continuous and beautiful embroidery.

{26:32} quod appendes ante quattuor columnas de lignis setim, quæ ipsæ quidem deauratæ erunt, et habebunt capita aurea, sed bases argenteas.
{26:32} And you shall suspend it before four columns of setim wood, which themselves certainly shall be overlaid with gold, and have heads of gold, but bases of silver.

{26:33} Inseretur autem velum per circulos, intra quod pones arcam testimonii, quo et Sanctuarium, et Sanctuarii sanctuaria dividentur.
{26:33} Then the veil shall be inserted through the rings. Beyond the veil, you shall place the ark of the testimony, where both the Sanctuary and the Sanctuary of Sanctuaries shall be divided.

{26:34} Pones et propitiatorium super arcam testimonii in Sancto sanctorum:
{26:34} And you shall place the propitiatory over the ark of the testimony, in the Holy of Holies.

{26:35} mensamque extra velum: et contra mensam candelabrum in latere tabernaculi meridiano: mensa enim stabit in parte Aquilonis.
{26:35} And the table shall be outside the veil. And opposite the table shall be the lampstand, in the meridian of the tabernacle. For the table shall stand at the north side.

{26:36} Facies et tentorium in introitu tabernaculi de hyacintho, et purpura, coccoque bis tincto, et bysso retorta, opere plumarii.
{26:36} You shall also make a tent at the entrance of the tabernacle from hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine twisted linen, wrought with embroidery.

~ This tent was outside of the Tabernacle, forming a covered entryway, which protected the Tabernacle from wind and rain and dust.

{26:37} Et quinque columnas deaurabis lignorum setim, ante quas ducetur tentorium: quarum erunt capita aurea, et bases æneæ.
{26:37} And you shall overlay with gold five columns of setim wood, over which the tent shall be drawn. The heads of these shall be of gold, and the bases of brass.”

[Exodus 27]
[Exodus 27]

{27:1} Facies et altare de lignis setim, quod habebit quinque cubitus in longitudine, et totidem in latitudine, id est, quadrum, et tres cubitos in altitudine.
{27:1} “You shall also make an altar of setim wood, which will have five cubits in length, and the same in width, that is, four equal sides, and three cubits in height.

{27:2} Cornua autem per quattuor angulos ex ipso erunt: et operies illud ære.
{27:2} Now there shall be horns at the four corners of it, and you shall cover it with brass.

{27:3} Faciesque in usus eius lebetes ad suscipiendos cineres, et forcipes atque fuscinulas, et ignium receptacula. Omnia vasa ex ære fabricabis:
{27:3} And you shall make, for its uses, pans to receive the ashes, and tongs as well as small hooks, and receptacles for fire. You shall fabricate all of its vessels from brass,

{27:4} Craticulamque in modum retis æneam: per cuius quattuor angulos erunt quattuor annuli ænei,
{27:4} along with a grating of brass in the manner of a net. At its four corners there shall be four rings of brass,

{27:5} quos pones subter arulam altaris: eritque craticula usque ad altaris medium.
{27:5} which you shall place under the base of the altar. And the grating will extend even to the middle of the altar.

{27:6} Facies et vectes altaris de lignis setim duos, quos operies laminis æneis:
{27:6} You shall also make, for the altar, two bars of setim wood, which you shall cover with layers of brass.

{27:7} et induces per circulos, eruntque ex utroque latere altaris ad portandum.
{27:7} And you shall lead them through the rings, and they will be on both sides of the altar to carry it.

{27:8} Non solidum, sed inane et cavum intrinsecus facies illud, sicut tibi in Monte monstratum est.
{27:8} You shall not make it solid, but empty and hollow at the interior, just as it was shown to you on the mountain.

{27:9} Facies et atrium tabernaculi, in cuius australi plaga contra meridiem erunt tentoria de bysso retorta: centum cubitos unum latus tenebit in longitudine.
{27:9} You shall also make the atrium of the tabernacle, at the southern part of which, opposite the meridian, there shall be hangings of fine twisted linen: one side extending for one hundred cubits in length.

{27:10} Et columnas viginti cum basibus totidem æneis, quæ capita cum cælaturis suis habebunt argentea.
{27:10} And you shall make twenty columns with the same number of bases of brass, the heads of which, with their engravings, shall be made of silver.

{27:11} Similiter et in latere aquilonis per longum erunt tentoria centum cubitorum, columnæ viginti, et bases æneæ eiusdem numeri, et capita earum cum cælaturis suis argentea.
{27:11} In like manner also, throughout the length of the north side, there shall be hangings of one hundred cubits, and twenty columns, and the same number of bases of brass, and their heads with their engravings of silver.

{27:12} In latitudine vero atrii, quod respicit ad occidentem, erunt tentoria per quinquaginta cubitos, et columnæ decem, basesque totidem.
{27:12} Yet truly, along the width of the atrium that looks out toward the west, there shall be hangings of fifty cubits, and ten columns, and the same number of bases.

{27:13} In ea quoque atrii latitudine, quæ respicit ad orientem, quinquaginta cubiti erunt,
{27:13} Likewise, along the width of the atrium that looks out toward the east, there shall be fifty cubits,

{27:14} in quibus quindecim cubitorum tentoria lateri uno deputabuntur, columnæque tres, et bases totidem:
{27:14} along which there shall be assigned hangings of fifteen cubits for one side, and three columns, and the same number of bases.

{27:15} et in latere altero erunt tentoria cubitos obtinentia quindecim, columnæ tres, et bases totidem.
{27:15} And, along the other side, there shall be hangings occupying fifteen cubits, with three columns and the same number of bases.

{27:16} In introitu vero atrii fiet tentorium cubitorum viginti ex hyacintho et purpura, coccoque bis tincto, et bysso retorta, opere plumarii: columnas habebit quattuor, cum basibus totidem.
{27:16} Yet truly, at the entrance of the atrium, there shall be made a hanging of twenty cubits, of hyacinth and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine twisted linen, wrought with embroidery. It shall have four columns, with the same number of bases.

{27:17} Omnes columnæ atrii per circuitum vestitæ erunt argenteis laminis, capitibus argenteis, et basibus æneis.
{27:17} All the columns surrounding the atrium shall be clothed with layers of silver, with silver heads, and with bases of brass.

{27:18} In longitudine occupabit atrium cubitos centum, in latitudine quinquaginta, altitudo quinque cubitorum erit: fietque de bysso retorta, et habebit bases æneas.
{27:18} In length, the atrium shall occupy one hundred cubits, in width, fifty; the height shall be of five cubits. And it shall be made of fine twisted linen, and it shall have bases of brass.

{27:19} Cuncta vasa tabernaculi in omnes usus et ceremonias, tam paxillos eius quam atrii, ex ære facies.
{27:19} All the vessels of the tabernacle, for all uses and ceremonies, even to the tent pegs for its atrium, you shall make of brass.

{27:20} Præcipe filiis Israel ut afferant tibi oleum de arboribus olivarum purissimum, piloque contusum: ut ardeat lucerna semper
{27:20} Instruct the sons of Israel so that they may bring you the purest oil of the olive trees, crushed with a pestle, so that a lamp may always burn

{27:21} in tabernaculo testimonii, extra velum quod oppansum est testimonio. Et collocabunt eam Aaron et filii eius, ut usque mane luceat coram Domino. Perpetuus erit cultus per successiones eorum a filiis Israel.
{27:21} in the tabernacle of the testimony, outside of the veil that enshrouds the testimony. And Aaron and his sons shall arrange it, so that it may give light in the presence of the Lord, until morning. This shall be a perpetual observance among the sons of Israel, throughout their successions.”

[Exodus 28]
[Exodus 28]

{28:1} Applica quoque ad te Aaron fratrem tuum cum filiis suis de medio filiorum Israel, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi: Aaron, Nadab, et Abiu, Eleazar, et Ithamar.
{28:1} “Also, join to yourself your brother Aaron, with his sons from the midst of the sons of Israel, so that they may exercise the priesthood for me: Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.

{28:2} Faciesque vestem sanctam Aaron fratri tuo in gloriam et decorem.
{28:2} And you shall make a holy vestment for Aaron, your brother, with glory and elegance.

{28:3} Et loqueris cunctis sapientibus corde, quos replevi spiritu prudentiæ, ut faciant vestes Aaron, in quibus sanctificatus ministret mihi.
{28:3} And you shall speak to all the wise of heart, whom I have filled with the spirit of prudence, so that they may make the vestments of Aaron, in which, having been sanctified, he may minister to me.

{28:4} Hæc autem erunt vestimenta quæ faciet: Rationale, et superhumerale, tunicam et lineam strictam, cidarim et balteum. Facient vestimenta sancta fratri tuo Aaron et filiis eius, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi.
{28:4} Now these shall be the vestments that they shall make: A breastplate and an ephod, a tunic and a close-fit linen garment, a headdress and a wide belt. They shall make the holy vestments for your brother Aaron and his sons, so that they may exercise the priesthood for me.

~ The superhumerale or ephod was the ancient predecessor or prefigure of the Catholic scapular.

{28:5} Accipientque aurum, et hyacinthum, et purpuram, coccumque bis tinctum, et byssum.
{28:5} And they shall receive gold, and hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine linen.

{28:6} Facient autem superhumerale de auro et hyacintho et purpura, coccoque bis tincto, et bysso retorta, opere polymito.
{28:6} Then they shall make the ephod of gold, and hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine twisted linen, wrought with diverse colors.

{28:7} Duas oras iunctas habebit in utroque latere summitatum, ut in unum redeant.
{28:7} It shall have two edges joined at the top on both sides, so that they may respond as one.

{28:8} Ipsa quoque textura et cuncta operis varietas erit ex auro et hyacintho, et purpura, coccoque bis tincto, et bysso retorta.
{28:8} Likewise, the weaving and all the detail work shall be of gold, and hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine twisted linen.

{28:9} Sumesque duos lapides onychinos, et sculpes in eis nomina filiorum Israel:
{28:9} And you shall take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of the sons of Israel:

{28:10} sex nomina in lapide uno, et sex reliqua in altero, iuxta ordinem nativitatis eorum.
{28:10} six names on one stone, and the remaining six on the other, according to the order of their birth.

{28:11} Opere sculptoris et cælatura gemmarii, sculpes eos nominibus filiorum Israel, inclusos auro atque circumdatos:
{28:11} By the work of a sculptor and the skill of a jeweler, you shall engrave them with the names of the sons of Israel, enclosed and encompassed with gold.

~ In this context, the word ‘cælatura’ refers to the process of engraving and the skill by which it is done, not to the engraving itself. Thus the rough work was to be done by a sculptor, but completed (in the finer details of the work) by a jeweler.

{28:12} et pones in utroque latere superhumeralis, memoriale filiis Israel. Portabitque Aaron nomina eorum coram Domino super utrumque humerum, ob recordationem.
{28:12} And you shall place them on both sides of the ephod, as a memorial to the sons of Israel. And Aaron shall carry their names before the Lord, upon both shoulders, as a remembrance.

{28:13} Facies et uncinos ex auro,
{28:13} You shall also make hooks of gold,

{28:14} et duas catenulas ex auro purissimo sibi invicem cohærentes, quas inseres uncinis.
{28:14} and two little chains of the purest gold, linked to one another, which you shall insert into the hooks.

{28:15} Rationale quoque iudicii facies opere polymito iuxta texturam superhumeralis ex auro, hyacintho, et purpura, coccoque bis tincto, et bysso retorta.
{28:15} Likewise, you shall make the breastplate of judgment, wrought with diverse colors according to the weaving of the ephod: of gold, hyacinth and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine twisted linen.

{28:16} Quadrangulum erit et duplex: mensuram palmi habebit tam in longitudine quam in latitudine.
{28:16} It shall have four corners and be doubled. It shall have the measure of the palm of a hand, both in length and in width.

~ It starts out as a square, with equal sides, but then it is folded (doubled) to be twice as high as it is wide, having about the proportions and the size of the palm of a hand.

{28:17} Ponesque in eo quattuor ordines lapidum: in primo versu erit lapis sardius, et topazius, et smaragdus:
{28:17} And you shall set within it four rows of stones. In the first row, there shall be a sardius stone, and a topaz, and an emerald.

{28:18} in secundo carbunculus, sapphirus, et iaspis:
{28:18} In the second, there shall be a garnet, a sapphire, and a jasper.

{28:19} in tertio ligurius, achates, et amethystus:
{28:19} In the third, there shall be a zircon, an agate, and an amethyst.

{28:20} in quarto chrysolithus, onychinus, et beryllus. Inclusi auro erunt per ordines suos.
{28:20} In the fourth, there shall be a chrysolite, an onyx, and a beryl. They shall be set in gold by their rows.

{28:21} Habebuntque nomina filiorum Israel: duodecim nominibus cælabuntur, singuli lapides nominibus singulorum per duodecim tribus.
{28:21} And these shall have the names of the sons of Israel. With twelve names shall they be engraved: each stone with one name from the twelve tribes.

{28:22} Facies in rationali catenas sibi invicem cohærentes ex auro purissimo:
{28:22} You shall make chains of the purest gold, linked one to another, on the breastplate,

{28:23} et duos annulos aureos, quos pones in utraque rationalis summitate:
{28:23} and two rings of gold, which you shall place at both ends of the breastplate.

{28:24} catenasque aureas iunges annulis, qui sunt in marginibus eius:
{28:24} And the golden chains, you shall join to the rings, which are at its edges.

{28:25} et ipsarum catenarum extrema duobus copulabis uncinis in utroque latere superhumeralis quod rationale respicit.
{28:25} And the ends of the chains themselves, you shall couple with two hooks, on both sides of the ephod, which looks toward the breastplate.

{28:26} Facies et duos annulos aureos, quos pones in summitatibus rationalis, in oris, quæ e regione sunt superhumeralis, et posteriora eius aspiciunt.
{28:26} You shall also make two rings of gold, which you shall place at the ends of the breastplate, at the borders which are away from the region of the ephod and which look toward its back.

{28:27} Nec non et alios duos annulos aureos, qui ponendi sunt in utroque latere superhumeralis deorsum, quod respicit contra faciem iuncturæ inferioris, ut aptari possit cum superhumerali,
{28:27} And then you shall also make two other rings of gold, which are to be suspended on both sides at the bottom of the ephod, which looks out opposite the face of the lower juncture, so that the breastplate can be fitted to the ephod.

{28:28} et stringatur rationale annulis suis cum annulis superhumeralis vitta hyacinthina, ut maneat iunctura fabrefacta, et a seinvicem rationale et superhumerale nequeant separari.
{28:28} And it shall be drawn tight to the rings of the breastplate, by the rings of the ephod, with a hyacinth band, so that the well-constructed juncture will remain in place, and the breastplate and the ephod will not be able to be separated from one another.

{28:29} Portabitque Aaron nomina filiorum Israel in rationali iudicii super pectus suum, quando ingredietur Sanctuarium, memoriale coram Domino in æternum.
{28:29} And Aaron shall carry the names of the sons of Israel on the breastplate of judgment upon his chest, when he enters into the Sanctuary, as a memorial in the presence of the Lord in eternity.

{28:30} Pones autem in rationali iudicii Doctrinam et Veritatem, quæ erunt in pectore Aaron, quando ingredietur coram Domino: et gestabit iudicium filiorum Israel in pectore suo, in conspectu Domini semper.
{28:30} Then you shall place in the breastplate of judgment, Doctrine and Truth, which shall then be upon Aaron’s chest, when he enters before the Lord. And he shall wear the judgment of the sons of Israel on his chest, in the sight of the Lord always.

{28:31} Facies et tunicam superhumeralis totam hyacinthinam,
{28:31} And you shall make the tunic for the ephod entirely of hyacinth,

{28:32} in cuius medio supra erit capitium, et ora per gyrum eius textilis, sicut fieri solet in extremis vestium partibus, ne facile rumpatur.
{28:32} and the head will be above its middle, with a hem woven around it, just as is usually made at the end parts of a garment, so that it may not be easily broken.

{28:33} Deorsum vero, ad pedes eiusdem tunicæ, per circuitum, quasi mala punica facies, ex hyacintho, et purpura, et cocco bis tincto, mistis in medio tintinnabulis,
{28:33} Yet truly, beneath it, at the base of the same tunic, all around, you shall make something like pomegranates, from hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, with little bells set in their midst.

~ The phrase ‘mala punica’ refers to ‘apples (or fruits) of Punicia (i.e. Carthage)’. Carthage apples are pomegranates.

{28:34} ita ut tintinnabulum sit aureum et malum punicum: rursumque tintinnabulum aliud aureum et malum punicum.
{28:34} So then, there shall be a little golden bell and a pomegranate, and again another golden bell and a pomegranate.

{28:35} Et vestietur ea Aaron in officio ministerii, ut audiatur sonitus quando ingreditur et egreditur Sanctuarium in conspectu Domini, et non moriatur.
{28:35} And Aaron will be vested with it during the office of his ministry, so that the sound may be heard when he enters and exits the Sanctuary, in the sight of the Lord, and so that he may not die.

{28:36} Facies et laminam de auro purissimo: in qua sculpes opere cælatoris, Sanctum Domino.
{28:36} And you shall make a plate of the purest gold, in which you shall engrave, with the skill of a sculptor, ‘Holy to the Lord.’

{28:37} Ligabisque eam vitta hyacinthina, et erit super tiaram,
{28:37} And you shall fasten it with a band of hyacinth, and it shall be upon the headdress,

{28:38} imminens fronti pontificis. Portabitque Aaron iniquitates eorum, quæ obtulerunt et sanctificaverunt filii Israel, in cunctis muneribus et donariis suis. Erit autem lamina semper in fronte eius, ut placatus sit eis Dominus.
{28:38} hanging in front of the high priest. And Aaron shall carry the iniquities of that which the sons of Israel have offered and sanctified, in all their gifts and donations. But the plate will always be at his forehead, so that the Lord may be well pleased with them.

{28:39} Stringesque tunicam bysso, et tiaram byssinam facies, et balteum opere plumarii.
{28:39} And you shall draw the tunic tight with fine linen, and you shall make a headdress of fine linen, and a wide belt, wrought with embroidery.

{28:40} Porro filiis Aaron tunicas lineas parabis et balteos ac tiaras in gloriam et decorem:
{28:40} Furthermore, for the sons of Aaron, you shall prepare linen tunics, and wide belts as well as headdresses, with glory and elegance.

{28:41} vestiesque his omnibus Aaron fratrem tuum et filios eius cum eo. Et cunctorum consecrabis manus, sanctificabisque illos, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi.
{28:41} And with all these you shall vest your brother Aaron, and his sons with him. And you shall consecrate all their hands, and you shall sanctify them, so that they may exercise the priesthood for me.

{28:42} Facies et feminalia linea, ut operiant carnem turpitudinis suæ, a renibus usque ad femora:
{28:42} You shall also make linen undergarments, in order to cover the flesh of their nakedness, from the kidneys all the way to the thighs.

{28:43} et utentur eis Aaron et filii eius quando ingredientur tabernaculum testimonii, vel quando appropinquant ad altare ut ministrent in sanctuario, ne iniquitatis rei moriantur. Legitimum sempiternum erit Aaron, et semini eius post eum.
{28:43} And Aaron and his sons will use them when they enter the tabernacle of the testimony, and when they approach toward the altar, in order to minister in the sanctuary, lest, being guilty of iniquity, they may die. It shall be a law forever for Aaron, and for his offspring after him.”

[Exodus 29]
[Exodus 29]

{29:1} Sed et hoc facies, ut mihi in sacerdotio consecrentur. Tolle vitulum de armento, et arietes duos immaculatos,
{29:1} “But you shall also do this, so that they may be consecrated to me in the priesthood: Take a calf from the herd, and two immaculate rams,

{29:2} panesque azymos, et crustulam absque fermento, quæ conspersa sit oleo, lagana quoque azyma oleo lita: de simila triticea cuncta facies.
{29:2} and unleavened bread, and a crust without leaven that has been sprinkled with oil, likewise, unleavened cakes smeared with oil. You shall make them all from the same wheat flour.

{29:3} Et posita in canistro offeres: vitulum autem et duos arietes.
{29:3} And, having placed them in baskets, you shall offer them, along with the calf and the two rams.

{29:4} Et Aaron, ac filios eius applicabis ad ostium tabernaculi testimonii. Cumque laveris patrem cum filiis suis aqua,
{29:4} And you shall bring forward Aaron and his sons, to the door of the tabernacle of the testimony. And when you will have washed the father with his sons in water,

{29:5} indues Aaron vestimentis suis, id est, linea et tunica, et superhumerali et rationali, quod constringes balteo.
{29:5} you shall clothe Aaron in his vestments, that is, with the linen, and the tunic, and the ephod, and the breastplate, which you shall draw together with the wide belt.

{29:6} Et pones tiaram in capite eius, et laminam sanctam super tiaram,
{29:6} And you shall place the headdress on his head and the holy plate upon the headdress.

{29:7} et oleum unctionis fundes super caput eius: atque hoc ritu consecrabitur.
{29:7} And you shall pour the oil of unction over his head. And so, by this rite, he shall be consecrated.

{29:8} Filios quoque illius applicabis, et indues tunicis lineis, cingesque balteo,
{29:8} Likewise, you shall bring forward his sons, and you shall clothe them in the linen tunics, and wrap them with the wide belt:

{29:9} Aaron scilicet et liberos eius, et impones eis mitras: eruntque sacerdotes mihi religione perpetua. Postquam initiaveris manus eorum,
{29:9} Aaron, certainly, as well as his sons. And you shall impose headdresses upon them. And they shall be priests to me by a perpetual ordinance. After you have initiated their hands,

{29:10} applicabis et vitulum coram tabernaculo testimonii. Imponentque Aaron et filii eius manus super caput illius,
{29:10} you shall bring forward also the calf, in the presence of the tabernacle of the testimony. And Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands upon its head.

{29:11} et mactabis eum in conspectu Domini, iuxta ostium tabernaculi testimonii.
{29:11} And you shall sacrifice it in the sight of the Lord, beside the door of the tabernacle of the testimony.

{29:12} Sumptumque de sanguine vituli, pones super cornua altaris digito tuo, reliquum autem sanguinem fundes iuxta basim eius.
{29:12} And taking some of the blood of the calf, you shall place it upon the horns of the altar with your finger, but the remainder of the blood you shall pour next to its base.

{29:13} Sumes et adipem totum qui operit intestina, et reticulum iecoris, ac duos renes, et adipem qui super eos est, et offeres incensum super altare:
{29:13} And you shall take all the fat which covers its intestines, and the mesh of the liver, as well as the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, and you shall offer them as a burnt offering upon the altar.

{29:14} carnes vero vituli et corium et fimum combures foris extra castra, eo quod pro peccato sit.
{29:14} Yet truly, the flesh of the calf, and the hide and the dung, you shall burn outside, beyond the camp, because it is for sin.

{29:15} Unum quoque arietem sumes, super cuius caput ponent Aaron et filii eius manus.
{29:15} Likewise, you shall take one ram, and upon its head Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands.

{29:16} Quem cum mactaveris, tolles de sanguine eius, et fundes circa altare.
{29:16} And when you will have sacrificed it, you shall take from its blood and pour it around the altar.

{29:17} Ipsum autem arietem secabis in frustra: lotaque intestina eius ac pedes pones super concisas carnes, et super caput illius.
{29:17} Then you shall cut the ram into pieces, and, having washed its intestines and feet, you shall place these upon the cut-up flesh and upon its head.

{29:18} Et offeres totum arietem in incensum super altare: oblatio est Domino, odor suavissimus victimæ Domini.
{29:18} And you shall offer the entire ram as a burnt offering upon the altar. It is an oblation to the Lord, a most sweet odor of the victim of the Lord.

{29:19} Tolles quoque arietem alterum, super cuius caput Aaron et filii eius ponent manus.
{29:19} Likewise, you shall take the other ram, upon whose head Aaron and his sons shall lay their hands.

{29:20} Quem cum immolaveris, sumes de sanguine eius, et pones super extremum auriculæ dextræ Aaron et filiorum eius, et super pollices manus eorum ac pedis dextri, fundesque sanguinem super altare per circuitum.
{29:20} And when you will have immolated it, you shall take of its blood, and place it on the tip of the right ear of Aaron and his sons, and on the thumbs and big toes of their right hand and right foot, and you shall pour the blood upon the altar, all around.

{29:21} Cumque tuleris de sanguine qui est super altare, et de oleo unctionis, asperges Aaron et vestes eius, filios et vestimenta eorum. Consecratisque ipsis et vestibus,
{29:21} And when you have taken from the blood that is on the altar, and from the oil of unction, you shall sprinkle Aaron and his vestment, his sons and their vestments. And after they and their vestments have been consecrated,

{29:22} tolles adipem de ariete, et caudam et arvinam, quæ operit vitalia, ac reticulum iecoris, et duos renes, atque adipem, qui super eos est, armumque dextrum, eo quod sit aries consecrationis:
{29:22} you shall take the fat of the ram, and the rump, and the lard that covers the internal organs, and the mesh of the liver, and the two kidneys along with the fat that is on them, and the right shoulder, because it is the ram of consecration,

{29:23} tortamque panis unius, crustulam conspersam oleo, laganum de canistro azymorum, quod positum est in conspectu Domini:
{29:23} and one turn of bread, a crust sprinkled with oil, and a cake from the basket of unleavened bread, which was placed in the sight of the Lord.

{29:24} ponesque omnia super manus Aaron et filiorum eius, et sanctificabis eos elevans coram Domino.
{29:24} And you shall place all these in the hands of Aaron and his sons, and you shall sanctify them, lifting them up in the sight of the Lord.

{29:25} Suscipiesque universa de manibus eorum: et incendes super altare in holocaustum, odorem suavissimum in conspectu Domini, quia oblatio eius est.
{29:25} And you shall take all these things from their hands and burn them upon the altar as a holocaust, as a most sweet odor in the sight of the Lord, because it is his oblation.

{29:26} Sumes quoque pectusculum de ariete, quo initiatus est Aaron, sanctificabisque illud elevatum coram Domino, et cedet in partem tuam.
{29:26} Likewise, you shall take the chest of the ram, with which Aaron was initiated, and you shall sanctify it, lifting it up in the sight of the Lord, and it will fall to your share.

{29:27} Sanctificabisque et pectusculum consecratum, et armum quem de ariete separasti,
{29:27} And you shall sanctify both the consecrated chest and the shoulder that you separated from the ram,

{29:28} quo initiatus est Aaron et filii eius, cedentque in partem Aaron et filiorum eius iure perpetuo a filiis Israel: quia primitiva sunt et initia de victimis eorum pacificis quæ offerunt Domino.
{29:28} with which Aaron was initiated with his sons, and these will fall to the share of Aaron and his sons, as a perpetual oath by the sons of Israel. For these are the greatest and the first of their victims of peace, which they offer to the Lord.

{29:29} Vestem autem sanctam, qua utetur Aaron, habebunt filii eius post eum, ut ungantur in ea, et consecrantur manus eorum.
{29:29} But the holy vestment, which Aaron shall use, his sons shall possess after him, so that they may be anointed in it and their hands may be consecrated.

{29:30} Septem diebus utetur illa qui pontifex pro eo fuerit constitutus de filiis eius, et qui ingredietur tabernaculum testimonii ut ministret in Sanctuario.
{29:30} For seven days, he who is high priest in his place and who enters the tabernacle of the testimony to minister in the Sanctuary shall use it.

{29:31} Arietem autem consecrationis tolles, et coques carnes eius in loco sancto:
{29:31} But you shall take the ram of consecration and cook its flesh in the holy place.

{29:32} quibus vescetur Aaron et filii eius. Panes quoque, qui sunt in canistro, in vestibulo tabernaculi testimonii comedent,
{29:32} And Aaron and his sons shall feed on it. Likewise, the loaves which are in the basket, they shall consume in the vestibule of the tabernacle of the testimony,

{29:33} ut sit placabile sacrificium, et sanctificentur offerentium manus. Alienigena non vescetur ex eis, quia sancti sunt.
{29:33} so that it may be an appeasing sacrifice, and so that the hands of those who offer may be sanctified. A stranger shall not eat from these, for they are holy.

{29:34} Quod si remanserit de carnibus consecratis, sive de panibus usque mane, combures reliquias igni: non comedentur, quia sanctificata sunt.
{29:34} And what may remain until morning, of the consecrated flesh or of the bread, you shall burn these remnants with fire. These shall not be eaten, because they have been sanctified.

{29:35} Omnia, quæ præcepi tibi, facies super Aaron et filiis eius. Septem diebus consecrabis manus eorum:
{29:35} All that I have instructed you concerning Aaron and his sons, you shall do. For seven days shall you consecrate their hands,

{29:36} et vitulum pro peccato offeres per singulos dies ad expiandum. Mundabisque altare cum immolaveris expiationis hostiam, et unges illud in sanctificationem.
{29:36} and you shall offer a calf for sin on each day, as an atonement. And you shall cleanse the altar when you will have immolated the victim of expiation, and you shall anoint it for sanctification.

{29:37} Septem diebus expiabis altare, et sanctificabis, et erit Sanctum sanctorum: omnis, qui tetigerit illud, sanctificabitur.
{29:37} For seven days, you shall expiate and sanctify the altar, and it shall be the Holy of holies. All those who will touch it must be sanctified.

{29:38} Hoc est quod facies in altari: Agnos anniculos duos per singulos dies iugiter,
{29:38} This is what you shall acquire for the altar: Two one-year-old lambs, each day continually,

{29:39} unum agnum mane, et alterum vespere,
{29:39} one lamb in the morning, and the other in the evening;

{29:40} decimam partem similæ conspersæ oleo tuso, quod habeat mensuram quartam partem hin, et vinum ad libandum eiusdem mensuræ in agno uno.
{29:40} for the one lamb, a tenth part of fine flour sprinkled with crushed oil, which shall have the measure of the fourth part of a hin, and wine for a libation, of the same measure;

~ A hin was about 6 liters; a fourth part of a ‘hin’ is about 1.5 liters.

{29:41} Alterum vero agnum offeres ad vesperam iuxta ritum matutinæ oblationis, et iuxta ea quæ diximus, in odorem suavitatis:
{29:41} truly, the other lamb you shall offer in the evening, according to the ritual of the morning oblation, and according to what we have said, as an odor of sweetness.

{29:42} sacrificium est Domino, oblatione perpetua in generationes vestras, ad ostium tabernaculi testimonii coram Domino, ubi constituam ut loquar ad te.
{29:42} It is a sacrifice to the Lord, by a perpetual oblation among your generations, at the door of the tabernacle of the testimony before the Lord, where I resolve to speak to you.

{29:43} Ibique præcipiam filiis Israel, et sanctificabitur altare in gloria mea.
{29:43} And there I will instruct the sons of Israel, and the altar shall be sanctified by my glory.

{29:44} Sanctificabo et tabernaculum testimonii cum altari, et Aaron cum filiis suis, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi.
{29:44} I will also sanctify the tabernacle of the testimony with the altar, and Aaron with his sons, to exercise the priesthood for me.

{29:45} Et habitabo in medio filiorum Israel, eroque eis Deus,
{29:45} And I will live in the midst of the sons of Israel, and I will be their God.

{29:46} et scient quia ego Dominus Deus eorum, qui eduxi eos de Terra Ægypti, ut manerem inter illos, ego Dominus Deus ipsorum.
{29:46} And they shall know that I am the Lord their God, who led them away from the land of Egypt, so that I might dwell among them. I am the Lord their God.”

[Exodus 30]
[Exodus 30]

{30:1} Facies quoque altare ad adolendum thymiama, de lignis setim,
{30:1} “You shall also make an altar, for the burning of incense, from setim wood,

{30:2} habens cubitum longitudinis, et alterum latitudinis, id est, quadrangulum, et duos cubitos in altitudine. Cornua ex ipso procedent.
{30:2} having one cubit in length, and another in width, that is, four equal sides, and two cubits in height. Horns shall proceed from the same.

{30:3} Vestiesque illud auro purissimo, tam craticulam eius, quam parietes per circuitum, et cornua. Faciesque ei coronam aureolam per gyrum,
{30:3} And you shall clothe it with the purest gold, both its grating and the walls around it, and also the horns. And you shall make for it a crown of gold in a circle,

{30:4} et duos annulos aureos sub corona per singula latera, ut mittantur in eos vectes, et altare portetur.
{30:4} and two gold rings under the crown on each side, so that the bars may be set in them and the altar may be carried.

{30:5} Ipsos quoque vectes facies de lignis setim, et inaurabis.
{30:5} Also, you shall make its bars of setim wood, and you shall overlay them with gold.

{30:6} Ponesque altare contra velum, quod ante arcum pendet testimonii coram propitiatorio quo tegitur testimonium, ubi loquar tibi.
{30:6} And you shall set the altar opposite the veil, which hangs in front of the ark of the testimony, before the propitiatory with which the testimony is covered, where I will speak to you.

{30:7} Et adolebit incensum super eo Aaron, suave fragrans, mane. Quando componet lucernas, incendet illud:
{30:7} And Aaron shall burn incense upon it, a sweet fragrance, in the morning. When he lights the lamps, he shall burn it.

{30:8} et quando collocabit eas ad vesperum, uret thymiama sempiternum coram Domino in generationes vestras.
{30:8} And when he assembles them in the evening, he shall burn an everlasting incense before the Lord throughout your generations.

{30:9} Non offeretis super eo thymiama compositionis alterius, nec oblationem, et victimam, nec libabitis libamina.
{30:9} You shall not offer upon it incense of another composition, nor an oblation, nor a victim; neither shall you offer libations.

{30:10} Et deprecabitur Aaron super cornua eius semel per annum, in sanguine quod oblatum est pro peccato, et placabit super eo in generationibus vestris. Sanctum sanctorum erit Domino.
{30:10} And Aaron shall pray over its horns once a year, with the blood of what was offered for sin. And he shall make atonement over it in your generations. It shall be the Holy of holies to the Lord.”

{30:11} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens:
{30:11} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

{30:12} Quando tuleris summam filiorum Israel iuxta numerum, dabunt singuli pretium pro animabus suis Domino, et non erit plaga in eis, cum fuerint recensiti.
{30:12} “When you have taken the sum of the sons of Israel, according to their number, each shall give a price for their souls to the Lord, and there will be no scourge among them, when they will be reviewed.

{30:13} Hoc autem dabit omnis qui transit ad nomen, dimidium sicli iuxta mensuram templi. Siclus viginti obolos habet. Media pars sicli offeretur Domino.
{30:13} Then all those who pass shall give by name: one half shekel, according to the measure at the temple. A shekel has twenty obols. The half part of a shekel shall be offered to the Lord.

~ An obol is a coin (and a unit of weight) worth one sixth of a drachma.

{30:14} Qui habetur in numero, a viginti annis et supra, dabit pretium.
{30:14} He who has been numbered from twenty years and above shall give the price.

{30:15} Dives non addet ad medium sicli, et pauper nihil minuet.
{30:15} The rich shall not add to the half shekel, and the poor shall diminish nothing.

{30:16} Susceptamque pecuniam, quæ collata est a filiis Israel, trades in usus tabernaculi testimonii, ut sit monimentum eorum coram Domino, et propitietur animabus eorum.
{30:16} And the money received, which was collected from the sons of Israel, you shall deliver for the uses of the tabernacle of the testimony, so that it may be a memorial of them before the Lord, and he may act favorably toward their souls.”

{30:17} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens:
{30:17} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

{30:18} Facies et labrum æneum cum basi sua ad lavandum: ponesque illud inter tabernaculum testimonii et altare. Et missa aqua,
{30:18} “You shall also make a bronze washtub with its base to wash in; and you shall place it between the tabernacle of the testimony and the altar. And when water has been added,

{30:19} lavabunt in ea Aaron, et filii eius manus suas ac pedes,
{30:19} Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and feet in it:

{30:20} quando ingressuri sunt tabernaculum testimonii, et quando accessuri sunt ad altare, ut offerant in eo thymiama Domino,
{30:20} when they enter the tabernacle of the testimony, and when they approach to the altar so as to offer incense to the Lord upon it,

{30:21} ne forte moriantur. Legitimum sempiternum erit ipsi, et semini eius per successiones.
{30:21} otherwise, they may die. This shall be an everlasting law to him, and to his offspring, throughout their successions.”

{30:22} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen,
{30:22} And the Lord spoke to Moses,

{30:23} dicens: Sume tibi aromata, primæ myrrhæ et electæ quingentos siclos, et cinnamomi medium, id est, ducentos quinquaginta siclos, calami similiter ducentos quinquaginta,
{30:23} saying: “Take for yourself aromatics: of the first and best myrrh, five hundred shekels, and of cinnamon half as much, that is, two hundred and fifty shekels; of sweet flag similarly two hundred and fifty,

~ A shekel, and in general other units of money at that time, were units of weight. A shekel was about 11.5 grams.

{30:24} casiæ autem quingentos siclos in pondere sanctuarii, olei de olivetis mensuram hin:
{30:24} but of cassia, five hundred shekels by the weight of the sanctuary, and of the oil of olives the measure of a hin.

{30:25} faciesque unctionis oleum sanctum, unguentum compositum opere unguentarii,
{30:25} And you shall make the holy oil of unction, an ointment composed with the skills of a perfumer,

{30:26} et unges ex eo tabernaculum testimonii, et arcam testamenti,
{30:26} and with it you shall anoint the tabernacle of the testimony, and the ark of the testament,

{30:27} mensamque cum vasis suis, et candelabrum, et utensilia eius, altaria thymiamatis,
{30:27} and the table with its vessels, and the lampstand and its utensils, the altars of incense

{30:28} et holocausti, et universam supellectilem quæ ad cultum eorum pertinet.
{30:28} and of holocaust, and all the items that pertain to their rituals.

{30:29} Sanctificabisque omnia, et erunt Sancta sanctorum: qui tetigerit ea, sanctificabitur.
{30:29} And you shall sanctify everything, and they shall be the Holy of holies. He who will touch them must be sanctified.

{30:30} Aaron et filios eius unges, sanctificabisque eos, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi.
{30:30} You shall anoint Aaron and his sons, and you shall sanctify them, so that they may exercise the priesthood for me.

{30:31} Filiis quoque Israel dices: Hoc oleum unctionis sanctum erit mihi in generationes vestras.
{30:31} Likewise, you shall say to the sons of Israel: ‘This oil of unction will be holy to me throughout your generations.

{30:32} Caro hominis non ungetur ex eo, et iuxta compositionem eius non facietis aliud, quia sanctificatum est, et sanctum erit vobis.
{30:32} The flesh of man shall not be anointed from it, and you shall not make any similar compound, for it has been sanctified and it shall be holy to you.

{30:33} Homo quicumque tale composuerit, et dederit ex eo, alieno, exterminabitur de populo suo.
{30:33} Whatever man will have composed such a thing and have given it to a stranger, he shall be exterminated from his people.’ ”

{30:34} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen: Sume tibi aromata, stacten et onycha, galbanum boni odoris, et thus lucidissimum, æqualis ponderis erunt omnia:
{30:34} And the Lord said to Moses: “Take to yourself aromatics: stacte, and onycha, galbanum of sweet odor, and the clearest frankincense, all these shall be of equal weight.

{30:35} faciesque thymiama compositum opere unguentarii, mistum diligenter, et purum, et sanctificatione dignissimum.
{30:35} And you shall make incense composed with the skills of a perfumer, diligently mixed, and pure, and most worthy of sanctification.

~ The word ‘unguentarii’ refers to someone who composes ointments, including those for health and those for beauty.

{30:36} Cumque in tenuissimum pulverem universa contuderis, pones ex eo coram tabernaculo testimonii, in quo loco apparebo tibi. Sanctum sanctorum erit vobis thymiama.
{30:36} And when you have crushed all these into a very fine powder, you shall place some of it before the tabernacle of the testimony, in the place where I will appear to you. The Holy of holies shall this incense be to you.

{30:37} Talem compositionem non facietis in usus vestros, quia sanctum est Domino.
{30:37} You shall not make such a compound for your own uses, because it is holy to the Lord.

{30:38} Homo quicumque fecerit simile, ut odore illius perfruatur, peribit de populis suis.
{30:38} Whatever man will have made anything similar, so as to thoroughly enjoy its smell, he shall perish from his people.”

[Exodus 31]
[Exodus 31]

{31:1} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens:
{31:1} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

{31:2} Ecce, vocavi ex nomine Beseleel filium Uri filii Hur de tribu Iuda,
{31:2} “Behold, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, from the tribe of Judah,

{31:3} et implevi Spiritu Dei, sapientia, et intelligentia, et scientia in omni opere,
{31:3} and I have filled him with the Spirit of God, with wisdom, and understanding, and knowledge in every craft,

{31:4} ad excogitandum quidquid fabrefieri potest ex auro, et argento, et ære,
{31:4} in order to design whatever must be fabricated from gold, and silver, and brass,

{31:5} marmore, et gemmis, et diversitate lignorum.
{31:5} from marble, and precious stones, and various woods.

{31:6} Dedique ei socium Ooliab filium Achisamech de tribu Dan. Et in corde omnis eruditi posui sapientiam: ut faciant cuncta quæ præcepi tibi,
{31:6} And I have given to him, as his associate, Oholiab the son of Ahisamach, from the tribe of Dan. And I have placed wisdom in the heart of every artisan, so that they may make everything as I have instructed you:

{31:7} tabernaculum fœderis, et arcam testimonii, et propitiatorium, quod super eam est, et cuncta vasa tabernaculi,
{31:7} the tabernacle of the covenant, and the ark of the testimony, and the propitiatory which is over it, and all the vessels of the tabernacle,

{31:8} mensamque et vasa eius, candelabrum purissimum cum vasis suis, et altaris thymiamatis,
{31:8} and the table and its vessels, the most pure lampstand with its vessels, and the altars of incense

~ The word ‘vasa’ in this context has more of the meaning of equipment or utensils; it is not limited specifically and only to actual containers.

{31:9} et holocausti, et omnia vasa eorum, labrum cum basi sua,
{31:9} and of holocaust and all their vessels, the washtub with its base,

{31:10} vestes sanctas in ministerio Aaron sacerdoti, et filiis eius, ut fungantur officio suo in sacris,
{31:10} the holy vestments for the ministry of Aaron the priest, and for his sons, so that they may execute their office of sacred rites,

{31:11} oleum unctionis, et thymiama aromatum in Sanctuario: omnia quæ præcepi tibi, facient.
{31:11} the oil of unction, and the incense of aromatics in the Sanctuary. All the things that I have instructed you, they shall make.”

{31:12} Et locutus est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens:
{31:12} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

{31:13} Loquere filiis Israel, et dices ad eos: Videte ut Sabbatum meum custodiatis: quia signum est inter me et vos in generationibus vestris: ut sciatis quia ego Dominus, qui sanctifico vos.
{31:13} “Speak to the sons of Israel, and you shall say to them: See that you keep my Sabbath. For it is a sign between me and you among your generations, so that you may know that I am the Lord, who sanctifies you.

{31:14} Custodite sabbatum meum: sanctum est enim vobis: qui polluerit illud, morte morietur: qui fecerit in eo opus, peribit anima illius de medio populi sui.
{31:14} Keep my Sabbath, for it is holy to you. Whoever will have polluted it, shall die a death. Whoever will have done any work in it, his soul shall perish from the midst of his people.

{31:15} Sex diebus facietis opus: in die septimo sabbatum est, requies sancta Domino. Omnis qui fecerit opus in hac die, morietur.
{31:15} For six days you shall do work. On the seventh day, it is the Sabbath, a rest sanctified by the Lord. All who will have done work on this day shall die.

{31:16} Custodiant filii Israel Sabbatum, et celebrent illud in generationibus suis. Pactum est sempiternum
{31:16} Let the sons of Israel keep the Sabbath, and let them celebrate it throughout their generations. It is an everlasting covenant

{31:17} inter me et filios Israel, signumque perpetuum. Sex enim diebus fecit Dominus cælum et terram, et in septimo ab opere cessavit.
{31:17} between me and the sons of Israel, and a perpetual sign. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and in the seventh he ceased from work.”

{31:18} Deditque Dominus Moysi, completis huiuscemodi sermonibus in monte Sinai, duas tabulas testimonii lapideas, scriptas digito Dei.
{31:18} And the Lord, having completed speaking in this way on Mount Sinai, gave to Moses two stone tablets of testimony, written with the finger of God.

[Exodus 32]
[Exodus 32]

{32:1} Videns autem populus quod moram faceret descendendi de monte Moyses, congregatus adversus Aaron, dixit: Surge, fac nobis deos, qui nos præcedant: Moysi enim huic viro, qui nos eduxit de Terra Ægypti, ignoramus quid acciderit.
{32:1} Then the people, seeing that Moses made a delay in descending from the mountain, gathered together against Aaron, and said: “Rise up, make us gods, who may go before us. But as for this man Moses, who led us away from the land of Egypt, we do not know what has befallen him.”

~ Aaron did these things, even though he was a chosen priest of God for the Israelites. These acts by Aaron are a foreshadowing of the future betrayals by ordained persons who go astray from the Faith to worship falsely.

{32:2} Dixitque ad eos Aaron: Tollite inaures aureas de uxorum, filiorumque et filiarum vestrarum auribus, et afferte ad me.
{32:2} And Aaron said to them, “Take the golden earrings from the ears of your wives, and your sons and daughters, and bring them to me.”

{32:3} Fecitque populus quæ iusserat, deferens inaures ad Aaron.
{32:3} And the people did what he had commanded, carrying the earrings to Aaron.

{32:4} Quas cum ille accepisset, formavit opere fusorio, et fecit ex eis vitulum conflatilem. Dixeruntque: Hi sunt dii tui Israel, qui te eduxerunt de Terra Ægypti.
{32:4} And when he had received them, he formed these by the work of a casting furnace, and he made from these a molten calf. And they said: “These are your gods, O Israel, who led you away from the land of Egypt.”

{32:5} Quod cum vidisset Aaron, ædificavit altare coram eo, et præconis voce clamavit, dicens: Cras sollemnitas Domini est.
{32:5} And when Aaron had seen it, he built an altar before it, and he cried out with a voice of proclamation, saying, “Tomorrow is the solemnity of the Lord.”

{32:6} Surgentesque mane, obtulerunt holocausta, et hostias pacificas, et sedit populus manducare, et bibere, et surrexerunt ludere.
{32:6} And rising up in the morning, they offered holocausts, and peace victims, and the people sat down to eat and to drink, and they rose up to play.

{32:7} Locutus est autem Dominus ad Moysen, dicens: Vade, descende: peccavit populus tuus, quem eduxisti de Terra Ægypti.
{32:7} Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: “Go, descend. Your people, whom you led away from the land of Egypt, have sinned.

{32:8} Recesserunt cito de via, quam ostendisti eis: feceruntque sibi vitulum conflatilem, et adoraverunt, atque immolantes ei hostias, dixerunt: Isti sunt dii tui Israel, qui te eduxerunt de Terra Ægypti.
{32:8} They have quickly withdrawn from the way which you revealed to them. And they have made for themselves a molten calf, and they have worshiped it. And immolating victims to it, they have said: ‘These are your gods, O Israel, who led you away from the land of Egypt.’ ”

{32:9} Rursumque ait Dominus ad Moysen: Cerno quod populus iste duræ cervicis sit:
{32:9} And again, the Lord said to Moses: “I discern that this people is stiff-necked.

{32:10} dimitte me, ut irascatur furor meus contra eos, et deleam eos, faciamque te in gentem magnam.
{32:10} Release me, so that my fury may be enraged against them, and I may destroy them, and then I will make of you a great nation.”

{32:11} Moyses autem orabat Dominum Deum suum, dicens: Cur, Domine, irascitur furor tuus contra populum tuum, quem eduxisti de Terra Ægypti, in fortitudine magna, et in manu robusta?
{32:11} Then Moses prayed to the Lord his God, saying: “Why, O Lord, is your fury enraged against your people, whom you led away from the land of Egypt, with great strength and with a mighty hand?

{32:12} Ne quæso dicant Ægyptii: Callide eduxit eos, ut interficeret in montibus, et deleret e terra. Quiescat ira tua, et esto placabilis super nequitia populi tui.
{32:12} I beg you, let not the Egyptians say, ‘He cleverly led them away, so that he could put them to death in the mountains and destroy them from the earth.’ Let your anger be quieted and appeased concerning the wickedness of your people.

{32:13} Recordare Abraham, Isaac, et Israel servorum tuorum, quibus iurasti per temetipsum, dicens: Multiplicabo semen vestrum sicut stellas cæli: et universam terram hanc, de qua locutus sum, dabo semini vestro, et possidebitis eam semper.
{32:13} Remember Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, your servants, to whom you swore by your very self, saying: ‘I will multiply your offspring like the stars of heaven. And this entire land, about which I have spoken, I will give to your offspring. And you shall possess it forever.’ ”

{32:14} Placatusque est Dominus ne faceret malum quod locutus fuerat adversus populum suum.
{32:14} And the Lord was appeased from doing the evil which he had spoken against his people.

{32:15} Et reversus est Moyses de monte, portans duas tabulas testimonii in manu sua, scriptas ex utraque parte,
{32:15} And Moses returned from the mountain, carrying the two tablets of the testimony in his hand, written on both sides,

{32:16} et factas opere Dei: scriptura quoque Dei erat sculpta in tabulis.
{32:16} and accomplished by the work of God. Also, the writing of God was engraved on the tablets.

{32:17} Audiens autem Iosue tumultum populi vociferantis, dixit ad Moysen: Ululatus pugnæ auditur in castris.
{32:17} Then Joshua, hearing the tumult of the people shouting, said to Moses: “The outcry of battle is heard in the camp.”

{32:18} Qui respondit: Non est clamor adhortantium ad pugnam, neque vociferatio compellentium ad fugam: sed vocem cantantium ego audio.
{32:18} But he responded: “It is not the clamor of men being exhorted to battle, nor the shout of men being compelled to flee. But I hear the voice of singing.”

{32:19} Cumque appropinquasset ad castra, vidit vitulum, et choros: iratusque valde, proiecit de manu tabulas, et confregit eas ad radicem montis:
{32:19} And when he had approached to the camp, he saw the calf and the dances. And being very angry, he threw down the tablets from his hand, and he broke them at the base of the mountain.

{32:20} arripiensque vitulum quem fecerant, combussit, et contrivit usque ad pulverem, quem sparsit in aquam, et dedit ex eo potum filiis Israel.
{32:20} And seizing the calf, which they had made, he burnt it and crushed it, even to dust, which he scattered into water. And he gave from it to the sons of Israel to drink.

{32:21} Dixitque ad Aaron: Quid tibi fecit hic populus, ut induceres super eum peccatum maximum?
{32:21} And he said to Aaron, “What has this people done to you, so that you would bring upon them the greatest sin?”

~ The worship of false gods is the greatest sin. It is the sin against the first commandment. It is directly and thoroughly opposed to the commandment to love God above all else. It is indirectly, and yet thoroughly, also opposed to the commandment to love your neighbor as yourself.

{32:22} Cui ille respondit: Ne indignetur dominus meus: tu enim nosti populum istum, quod pronus sit ad malum:
{32:22} And he answered him: “Let not my lord be indignant. For you know this people, that they are prone to evil.

{32:23} dixerunt mihi: Fac nobis deos, qui nos præcedant: huic enim Moysi, qui nos eduxit de Terra Ægypti, nescimus quid acciderit.
{32:23} They said to me: ‘Make gods for us, who may go before us. For this Moses, who led us away from the land of Egypt, we do not know what has befallen him.’

{32:24} Quibus ego dixi: Quis vestrum habet aurum? Tulerunt, et dederunt mihi: et proieci illud in ignem, egressusque est hic vitulus.
{32:24} And I said to them, ‘Which of you has gold?’ And they took it and gave it to me. And I threw it into the fire, and this calf came out.”

{32:25} Videns ergo Moyses populum quod esset nudatus, (spoliaverat enim eum Aaron propter ignominiam sordis, et inter hostes nudum constituerat)
{32:25} Therefore, Moses, seeing that the people were naked (for Aaron had stripped them because of the disgrace of their sordidness, and he had set them naked among their enemies),

{32:26} et stans in porta castrorum, ait: Si quis est Domini, iungatur mihi. Congregatique sunt ad eum omnes filii Levi:
{32:26} and standing at the gate of the camp, said: “If anyone is for the Lord, let him join with me.” And all the sons of Levi gathered themselves together to him.

{32:27} quibus ait: Hæc dicit Dominus Deus Israel: Ponat vir gladium super femur suum: ite, et redite de porta usque ad portam per medium castrorum, et occidat unusquisque fratrem, et amicum, et proximum suum.
{32:27} And he said to them: “Thus says the Lord God of Israel: Let a man place his sword at his thigh. Go forth, and then return, from gate to gate, through the midst of the camp, and let each one kill his brother, and friend, and neighbor.”

{32:28} Feceruntque filii Levi iuxta sermonem Moysi, cecideruntque in die illa quasi viginti tria millia hominum.
{32:28} And the sons of Levi did according to the words of Moses, and there fell on that day about twenty-three thousand men.

{32:29} Et ait Moyses: Consecrastis manus vestras hodie Domino, unusquisque in filio, et in fratre suo, ut detur vobis benedictio.
{32:29} And Moses said: “On this day, you have consecrated your hands to the Lord, each one in his son and in his brother, so that a blessing may be given to you.”

{32:30} Facto autem altero die, locutus est Moyses ad populum: Peccastis peccatum maximum: ascendam ad Dominum, si quo modo quivero eum deprecari pro scelere vestro.
{32:30} Then, when the next day arrived, Moses spoke to the people: “You have sinned the greatest sin. I will ascend to the Lord. Perhaps, in some way, I might be able to entreat him for your wickedness.”

{32:31} Reversusque ad Dominum, ait: Obsecro, peccavit populus iste peccatum maximum, feceruntque sibi deos aureos: aut dimitte eis hanc noxam,
{32:31} And returning to the Lord, he said: “I beg you, this people has sinned the greatest sin, and they have made for themselves gods of gold. Either release them from this offense,

{32:32} aut si non facis, dele me de libro tuo quem scripsisti.
{32:32} or, if you do not, then delete me from the book that you have written.”

{32:33} Cui respondit Dominus: Qui peccaverit mihi, delebo eum de libro meo:
{32:33} And the Lord answered him: “Whoever has sinned against me, him I will delete from my book.

{32:34} Tu autem vade, et duc populum istum quo locutus sum tibi: Angelus meus præcedet te. Ego autem in die ultionis visitabo et hoc peccatum eorum.
{32:34} But as for you, go and lead this people where I have told you. My angel will go before you. Then, on the day of retribution, I will also visit this sin of theirs.”

{32:35} Percussit ergo Dominus populum pro reatu vituli, quem fecerat Aaron.
{32:35} Therefore, the Lord struck the people for the guilt of the calf, which Aaron had made.

[Exodus 33]
[Exodus 33]

{33:1} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens: Vade, ascende de loco isto tu, et populus tuus quem eduxisti de Terra Ægypti, in terram quam iuravi Abraham, Isaac, et Iacob, dicens: Semini tuo dabo eam:
{33:1} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: “Go forth, ascend from this place, you and your people, whom you led away from the land of Egypt, into the land that I swore to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, saying: To your offspring, I will give it.

{33:2} et mittam præcursorem tui Angelum, ut eiiciam Chananæum, et Amorrhæum, et Hethæum, et Pherezæum, et Hevæum, et Iebusæum,
{33:2} And I will send an Angel to precede you, so that I may cast out the Canaanite, and the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite,

{33:3} et intres in terram fluentem lacte et melle. Non enim ascendam tecum, quia populus duræ cervicis es: ne forte disperdam te in via.
{33:3} and so that you may enter into a land flowing with milk and honey. For I will not go up with you, since you are a stiff-necked people, lest perhaps I may destroy you on the way.”

{33:4} Audiensque populus sermonem hunc pessimum, luxit: et nullus ex more indutus est cultu suo.
{33:4} And upon hearing this very bad news, the people mourned; and no one put on his finery according to custom.

{33:5} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen: Loquere filiis Israel: Populus duræ cervicis es, semel ascendam in medio tui, et delebo te. Iam nunc depone ornatum tuum, ut sciam quid faciam tibi.
{33:5} And the Lord said to Moses: “Say to the sons of Israel: You are a stiff-necked people. I should at once go up into your midst and destroy you. Now immediately put aside your ornaments, so that I may know what to do to you.”

{33:6} Deposuerunt ergo filii Israel ornatum suum a monte Horeb.
{33:6} Therefore, the sons of Israel put aside their ornaments before Mount Horeb.

{33:7} Moyses quoque tollens tabernaculum, tetendit extra castra procul, vocavitque nomen eius, Tabernaculum fœderis. Et omnis populus, qui habebat aliquam quæstionem, egrediebatur ad Tabernaculum fœderis, extra castra.
{33:7} Also, Moses took the tabernacle and pitched it beyond the camp at a distance, and he called its name: ‘Tabernacle of the Covenant.’ And all the people, who had any kind of question, went out to the Tabernacle of the Covenant, beyond the camp.

{33:8} Cumque egrederetur Moyses ad tabernaculum, surgebat universa plebs, et stabat unusquisque in ostio papilionis sui, aspiciebantque tergum Moysi, donec ingrederetur tentorium.
{33:8} And when Moses went out to the tabernacle, all the people rose up, and each one stood at the door of his pavilion, and they beheld the back of Moses until he entered the tent.

{33:9} Ingresso autem illo Tabernaculum fœderis, descendebat columna nubis, et stabat ad ostium, loquebaturque cum Moyse,
{33:9} And when he had gone into the Tabernacle of the Covenant, the pillar of cloud descended and stood at the door, and he spoke with Moses.

{33:10} cernentibus universis quod columna nubis staret ad ostium Tabernaculi. Stabantque ipsi, et adorabant per fores tabernaculorum suorum.
{33:10} And all discerned that the pillar of cloud stood at the door of the Tabernacle. And they stood and worshipped at the doors of their tents.

{33:11} Loquebatur autem Dominus ad Moysen facie ad faciem, sicut solet loqui homo ad amicum suum. Cumque ille reverteretur in castra, minister eius Iosue filius Nun, puer, non recedebat de Tabernaculo.
{33:11} But the Lord spoke to Moses face to face, just as a man is used to speaking to his friend. And when he returned to the camp, his minister Joshua, the son of Nun, a young man, did not withdraw from the Tabernacle.

{33:12} Dixit autem Moyses ad Dominum: Præcipis ut educam populum istum: et non indicas mihi quem missurus es mecum, præsertim cum dixeris: Novi te ex nomine, et invenisti gratiam coram me.
{33:12} Then Moses said to the Lord: “You instruct me to lead this people away, and you do not reveal to me whom you will send with me, particularly since you have said: ‘I know you by name, and you have found favor before me.’

{33:13} Si ergo inveni gratiam in conspectu tuo, ostende mihi faciem tuam, ut sciam te, et inveniam gratiam ante oculos tuos: respice populum tuum gentem hanc.
{33:13} If, therefore, I have found favor in your sight, show your face to me, so that I may know you and may find grace before your eyes. Look favorably on your people, this nation.”

{33:14} Dixitque Dominus: Facies mea præcedet te, et requiem dabo tibi.
{33:14} And the Lord said, “My face will precede you, and I will give you rest.”

{33:15} Et ait Moyses: Si non tu ipse præcedas, ne educas nos de loco isto.
{33:15} And Moses said: “If you will not yourself precede us, then do not lead us away from this place.

{33:16} In quo enim scire poterimus ego et populus tuus invenisse nos gratiam in conspectu tuo, nisi ambulaveris nobiscum, ut glorificemur ab omnibus populis qui habitant super terram?
{33:16} For how will we be able to know, I and your people, that we have found grace in your sight, unless you walk with us, so that we may be glorified out of all the people who live upon the earth?”

{33:17} Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen: Et verbum istud, quod locutus es, faciam: invenisti enim gratiam coram me, et teipsum novi ex nomine.
{33:17} Then the Lord said to Moses: “This word also, which you have spoken, I will do. For you have found grace before me, and I have known you by name.”

{33:18} Qui ait: Ostende mihi gloriam tuam.
{33:18} And he said, “Show me your glory.”

{33:19} Respondit: Ego ostendam omne bonum tibi, et vocabo in nomine Domini coram te: et miserebor cui voluero, et clemens ero in quem mihi placuerit.
{33:19} He responded: “I will show you all that is good, and I will call out with the name of the Lord before you. And I will take pity on whomever I will, and I will be lenient to whomever it will please me.”

{33:20} Rursumque ait: Non poteris videre faciem meam: non enim videbit me homo, et vivet.
{33:20} And again he said: “You are not able to see my face. For man shall not see me and live.”

{33:21} Et iterum: Ecce, inquit, est locus apud me, et stabis supra petram.
{33:21} And again, he said: “Behold, there is a place with me, and you shall stand upon the rock.

{33:22} Cumque transibit gloria mea, ponam te in foramine petræ, et protegam dextera mea, donec transeam:
{33:22} And when my glory will cross over, I will set you in a cleft of the rock, and I will protect you with my right hand, until I pass by.

{33:23} tollamque manum meam, et videbis posteriora mea: faciem autem meam videre non poteris.
{33:23} And I will take away my hand, and you shall see my back. But my face you are not able to see.”

[Exodus 34]
[Exodus 34]

{34:1} Ac deinceps: Præcide, ait, tibi duas tabulas lapideas instar priorum, et scribam super eas verba, quæ habuerunt tabulæ, quas fregisti.
{34:1} And after this he said: “Cut out for yourself two tablets of stone similar to the first ones, and I will write upon them the words which were held on the tablets that you broke.

{34:2} Esto paratus mane, ut ascendas statim in montem Sinai, stabisque mecum super verticem montis.
{34:2} Be prepared in the morning, so that you may immediately ascend onto Mount Sinai, and you shall stand with me on the summit of the mountain.

{34:3} Nullus ascendat tecum, nec videatur quispiam per totum montem: boves quoque et oves non pascantur e contra.
{34:3} Let no one ascend with you, and do not let anyone be seen throughout the entire mountain. Likewise, do not let the oxen or the sheep pasture up against it.”

{34:4} Excidit ergo duas tabulas lapideas, quales antea fuerant: et de nocte consurgens ascendit in montem Sinai, sicut præceperat ei Dominus, portans secum tabulas.
{34:4} And so he cut out two tablets of stone, like those that were before. And rising up in the night, he ascended onto Mount Sinai, just as the Lord had instructed him, carrying with him the tablets.

{34:5} Cumque descendisset Dominus per nubem, stetit Moyses cum eo, invocans nomen Domini.
{34:5} And when the Lord had descended in a cloud, Moses stood with him, calling upon the name of the Lord.

{34:6} Quo transeunte coram eo, ait: Dominator Domine Deus, misericors et clemens, patiens et multæ miserationis, ac verax,
{34:6} And as he was crossing before him, he said: “The Ruler, the Lord God, merciful and lenient, patient and full of compassion and also truthful,

{34:7} qui custodis misericordiam in millia: qui aufers iniquitatem, et scelera, atque peccata, nullusque apud te per se innocens est. Qui reddis iniquitatem patrum filiis, ac nepotibus in tertiam et quartam progeniem.
{34:7} who preserves mercy a thousand fold, who takes away iniquity, and wickedness, and also sin; and with you no one, in and of himself, is innocent. You render the iniquity of the fathers to the sons, and also to their descendants to the third and fourth generation.”

{34:8} Festinusque Moyses, curvatus est pronus in terram, et adorans
{34:8} And hurrying, Moses bowed down prostrate to the ground; and worshiping,

{34:9} ait: Si inveni gratiam in conspectu tuo Domine, obsecro ut gradiaris nobiscum (populus enim duræ cervicis est) et auferas iniquitates nostras atque peccata, nosque possideas.
{34:9} he said: “If I have found grace in your sight, O Lord, I beg you to walk with us, (for the people are stiff-necked) and take away our iniquities and our sin, and so possess us.”

{34:10} Respondit Dominus: Ego inibo pactum videntibus cunctis, signa faciam quæ numquam visa sunt super terram, nec in ullis gentibus: ut cernat populus iste, in cuius es medio, opus Domini terribile quod facturus sum.
{34:10} The Lord responded: “I will enter into a pact in the sight of all. I will perform signs which have never been seen on earth, nor among any nation, so that this people, in whose midst you are, may discern the terrible work of the Lord that I will do.

{34:11} Observa cuncta quæ hodie mando tibi: ego ipse eiiciam ante faciem tuam Amorrhæum, et Chananæum, et Hethæum, Pherezæum quoque, et Hevæum, et Iebusæum.
{34:11} Observe everything that I command you this day. I myself will drive out before your face the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.

{34:12} Cave ne umquam cum habitatoribus terræ illius iungas amicitias, quæ sint tibi in ruinam:
{34:12} Beware that you do not ever join in friendship with the inhabitants of that land, which may be your ruin.

{34:13} sed aras eorum destrue, confringe statuas, lucosque succide:
{34:13} But destroy their altars, break their statues, and cut down their sacred groves.

{34:14} noli adorare deum alienum. Dominus zelotes nomen eius, Deus est æmulator.
{34:14} Do not be willing to worship any strange god. The jealous Lord is his name. God is a rival.

{34:15} Ne ineas pactum cum hominibus illarum regionum: ne, cum fornicati fuerint cum diis suis, et adoraverint simulcra eorum, vocet te quispiam ut comedas de immolatis.
{34:15} Do not enter into a pact with the men of those regions, lest, when they will have fornicated with their gods and worshiped their idols, someone might call upon you to eat from what was immolated.

{34:16} Nec uxorem de filiabus eorum accipies filiis tuis: ne, postquam ipsæ fuerint fornicatæ, fornicari faciant et filios tuos in deos suos.
{34:16} Neither shall you take a wife for your son from their daughters, lest, after they themselves have fornicated, they may cause your sons also to fornicate with their gods.

{34:17} Deos conflatiles non facies tibi.
{34:17} You shall not make for yourselves any molten gods.

{34:18} Sollemnitatem azymorum custodies. Septem diebus vesceris azymis, sicut præcepi tibi, in tempore mensis novorum: mense enim verni temporis egressus es de Ægypto.
{34:18} You shall keep the solemnity of unleavened bread. For seven days, you shall eat unleavened bread, just as I instructed you, in the time of the month of what is new. For in the month of springtime you departed from Egypt.

~ The phrase ‘mensis novorum’ uses the adjective ‘novorum’ as a noun: ‘the month of newness,’ or ‘the month of what is new,’ which indicates the springtime, i.e. the time of the grain harvest.

{34:19} Omne, quod aperit vulvam generis maculini, meum erit. De cunctis animantibus tam de bobus, quam de ovibus, meum erit.
{34:19} All of the male kind, which open the womb, shall be mine: from all the animals, as much of oxen as of sheep, it shall be mine.

{34:20} Primogenitum asini redimes ove: sin autem nec pretium pro eo dederis, occidetur. Primogenitum filiorum tuorum redimes: nec apparebis in conspectu meo vacuus.
{34:20} The firstborn of a donkey, you shall redeem with a sheep. But if you will not give a price for it, it shall be slain. The firstborn of your sons you shall redeem. You shall not appear empty in my sight.

{34:21} Sex diebus operaberis, die septimo cessabis arare, et metere.
{34:21} For six days you shall work. On the seventh day you shall cease to cultivate and to harvest.

{34:22} Sollemnitatem hebdomadarum facies tibi in primitiis frugum messis tuæ triticeæ, et sollemnitatem, quando redeunte anni tempore cuncta conduntur.
{34:22} You shall observe the Solemnity of Weeks with the first-fruits of the grain from the harvest of your wheat, and a Solemnity when the time of the year returns and everything is stored away.

~ More literally, this is the solemnity of sevens (or of groups of sevens). It is a count of seven sets of seven days, from Passover to Pentecost (the Jewish Pentecost or Feast of Weeks).

{34:23} Tribus temporibus anni apparebit omne masculinum tuum in conspectu Omnipotentis, Domini Dei Israel.
{34:23} Three times a year, all your males shall appear in the sight of the Almighty, the Lord God of Israel.

~ The three feasts are Passover, Pentecost, and the Feast of Tabernacles, so the feast or solemnity at the end of the year would be the Feast of Tabernacles, which occurs at the end of the civil calendar year and at the end of the year counted from the start of planting grain in the fall.

{34:24} Cum enim tulero gentes a facie tua, et dilatavero terminos tuos, nullus insidiabitur terræ tuæ, ascendente te, et apparente in conspectu Domini Dei tui ter in anno.
{34:24} For when I will have taken away the nations before your face, and enlarged your borders, no one shall lie in wait against your land when you will go up to appear in the sight of the Lord your God, three times a year.

{34:25} Non immolabis super fermento sanguinem hostiæ meæ: neque residebit mane de victima sollemnitatis Phase.
{34:25} You shall not immolate the blood of my victim over leaven; and there shall not remain, in the morning, any of the victim of the Solemnity of the Passover.

{34:26} Primitias frugum terræ tuæ offeres in domo Domini Dei tui. Non coques hœdum in lacte matris suæ.
{34:26} The first of the fruits of your land you shall offer in the house of the Lord your God. You shall not boil a young goat in the milk of its mother.”

{34:27} Dixitque Dominus ad Moysen: Scribe tibi verba hæc, quibus et tecum et cum Israel pepigi fœdus.
{34:27} And the Lord said to Moses, “Write these words to you, through which I have formed a covenant, both with you and with Israel.”

{34:28} Fuit ergo ibi cum Domino quadraginta dies et quadraginta noctes: panem non comedit, et aquam non bibit, et scripsit in tabulis verba fœderis decem.
{34:28} Therefore, he was in that place with the Lord for forty days and forty nights; he did not eat bread and he did not drink water, and he wrote on the tablets the ten words of the covenant.

{34:29} Cumque descenderet Moyses de monte Sinai, tenebat duas tabulas testimonii, et ignorabat quod cornuta esset facies sua ex consortio sermonis Domini.
{34:29} And when Moses descended from Mount Sinai, he held the two tablets of the testimony, and he did not know that his face was radiant from the sharing of words with the Lord.

~ The Latin text clearly refers to horns on Moses. Some say that this is an ancient misunderstanding (which they attribute to Saint Jerome) of the Hebrew word ‘qaran’ which can refer to horns or to rays of light. In any case, Moses was a figure and a foreshadowing of Christ, the Lamb of God, so it is fitting that Moses be depicted with horns.

~ In this translation, however, the Hebrew text will be used to correct the Latin. The Neo-Vulgate and the Jerusalem Bible Readers Edition and online sources were consulted on this point.

{34:30} Videntes autem Aaron et filii Israel cornutam Moysi faciem, timuerunt prope accedere.
{34:30} Then Aaron and the sons of Israel, seeing that the face of Moses was radiant, were afraid to approach close by.

{34:31} Vocatique ab eo, reversi sunt tam Aaron, quam principes synagogæ. Et postquam locutus est ad eos,
{34:31} And being called by him, they turned back, both Aaron and the leaders of the assembly. And after he had spoken to them,

{34:32} venerunt ad eum etiam omnes filii Israel: quibus præcepit cuncta quæ audierat a Domino in monte Sinai.
{34:32} all the sons of Israel also now came to him. And he instructed them in all the things that he had heard from the Lord on Mount Sinai.

{34:33} Impletisque sermonibus, posuit velamen super faciem suam.
{34:33} And having completed these words, he placed a veil over his face.

{34:34} Quod ingressus ad Dominum, et loquens cum eo, auferebat donec exiret, et tunc loquebatur ad filios Israel omnia quæ sibi fuerant imperata.
{34:34} But when he entered to the Lord and was speaking with him, he took it off, until he exited. And then he spoke to the sons of Israel all that had been commanded to him.

{34:35} Qui videbant faciem egredientis Moysi esse cornutam, sed operiebat ille rursus faciem suam, si quando loquebatur ad eos.
{34:35} And they saw that the face of Moses, when he came out, was radiant, but he covered his face again, whenever he spoke to them.

[Exodus 35]
[Exodus 35]

{35:1} Igitur congregata omni turba filiorum Israel, dixit ad eos: Hæc sunt quæ iussit Dominus fieri.
{35:1} Therefore, when all the multitude of the sons of Israel had gathered together, he said to them: “These are the things that the Lord has ordered to be done:

{35:2} Sex diebus facietis opus: septimus dies erit vobis sanctus, Sabbatum, et requies Domini: qui fecerit opus in eo, occidetur.
{35:2} For six days you shall do work; the seventh day, the Sabbath and the rest of the Lord, will be holy to you; whoever will have done any work in it shall be killed.

{35:3} Non succendetis ignem in omnibus habitaculis vestris per diem Sabbati.
{35:3} You shall not kindle a fire in any of your dwelling places throughout the day of the Sabbath.”

{35:4} Et ait Moyses ad omnem catervam filiorum Israel: Iste est sermo quem præcepit Dominus, dicens:
{35:4} And Moses said to the entire crowd of the sons of Israel: “This is the word which the Lord has instructed, saying:

{35:5} Separate apud vos primitias Domino. Omnis voluntarius et prono animo offerat eas Domino: aurum et argentum, et æs,
{35:5} Separate from among you the first-fruits to the Lord. Let all who are willing and have a ready soul offer these to the Lord: gold, and silver, and brass,

{35:6} hyacinthum et purpuram, coccumque bis tinctum, et byssum, pilos caprarum,
{35:6} hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine linen, the hair of goats,

{35:7} pellesque arietum rubricatas, et ianthinas, ligna setim,
{35:7} and the skins of rams, dyed red, and violet skins, setim wood,

{35:8} et oleum ad luminaria concinnanda, et ut conficiatur unguentum, et thymiama suavissimum,
{35:8} and oil to prepare lights and to produce ointment, and most sweet incense,

{35:9} lapides onychinos, et gemmas ad ornatum superhumeralis et rationalis.
{35:9} onyx stones and gems, to adorn the ephod and the breastplate.

{35:10} Quisque vestrum sapiens est, veniat, et faciat quod Dominus imperavit:
{35:10} And whoever among you is wise, let him come and make what the Lord has commanded:

{35:11} Tabernaculum scilicet, et tectum eius, atque operimentum, annulos, et tabulata cum vectibus, paxillos et bases:
{35:11} the tabernacle, certainly, and its roof, and also the covering, the rings, and the panels with the bars, the tent pegs and the bases,

{35:12} Arcam et vectes, propitiatorium, et velum, quod ante illud oppanditur:
{35:12} the ark and its bars, the propitiatory, and the veil that is drawn before it,

{35:13} Mensam cum vectibus et vasis, et propositionis panibus:
{35:13} the table with its bars and vessels, and the bread of the presence,

{35:14} Candelabrum ad luminaria sustentanda, vasa illius et lucernas, et oleum ad nutrimenta ignium:
{35:14} the lampstand to hold up the lights, its vessels and lamps, and the oil to the nourish the fire,

{35:15} Altare thymiamatis, et vectes, et oleum unctionis et thymiama ex aromatibus: Tentorium ad ostium tabernaculi:
{35:15} the altar of incense and its bars, and the oil of unction, and the incense of aromatics, the tent at the door of the tabernacle,

{35:16} Altare holocausti, et craticulam eius æneam cum vectibus et vasis suis: labrum et basim eius:
{35:16} the altar of holocaust and its grate of brass, with the bars and vessels, the washtub and its base,

{35:17} Cortinas atrii cum columnis et basibus, tentorium in foribus vestibuli,
{35:17} the curtains of the atrium, with the columns and the bases, the hanging at the doors of the vestibule,

{35:18} paxillos tabernaculi et atrii cum funiculis suis:
{35:18} the tent pegs of the tabernacle and the atrium, with their little cords,

{35:19} Vestimenta, quorum usus est in ministerio Sanctuarii, vestes Aaron pontificis ac filiorum eius, ut sacerdotio fungantur mihi.
{35:19} the vestments, which are to be used in the ministry of the Sanctuary, the vestments of Aaron, the high priest, as well as those of his sons, in order to exercise the priesthood to me.”

{35:20} Egressaque omnis multitudo filiorum Israel de conspectu Moysi,
{35:20} And all the multitude of the sons of Israel, departing from the sight of Moses,

{35:21} obtulerunt mente promptissima atque devota primitias Domino, ad faciendum opus tabernaculi testimonii. Quidquid ad cultum et ad vestes sanctas necessarium erat,
{35:21} offered the first-fruits to the Lord with a most ready and devout mind, to accomplish the work of the tabernacle of the testimony. Whatever was needed for worship and for the holy vestments,

{35:22} viri cum mulieribus præbuerunt, armillas et inaures, annulos et dextralia: omne vas aureum in donaria Domini separatum est.
{35:22} men along with women provided: arm bands and earrings, rings and bracelets. And every vessel of gold was separated, to be donated to the Lord.

{35:23} Si quis habebat hyacinthum, et purpuram, coccumque bis tinctum, byssum et pilos caprarum, pelles arietum rubricatas, et ianthinas,
{35:23} If anyone had hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, fine linen and the hair of goats, the skins of rams, dyed red, and violet skins,

{35:24} argenti, ærisque metalla obtulerunt Domino, lignaque setim in varios usus.
{35:24} metal of silver and brass, they offered it to the Lord, along with setim wood for various uses.

{35:25} Sed et mulieres doctæ, quæ neverant, dederunt hyacinthum, purpuram, et vermiculum, ac byssum,
{35:25} But the skillful women also gave whatever they had spun: hyacinth, purple, and vermillion, as well as fine linen,

~ The word ‘vermillion’ is derived from the Latin vermiculus, originally referring to dyes made from some type of grub or larvae. However, in ancient Egypt the color may have been made by grinding minerals containing mercury sulfide (also called cinnabar). So the hyacinth was made from flowers (as Flavius Josephus attests), the purple was made from mollusks in the sea, the scarlet (in Latin: coccum, referring to cochineal carmine) described in other verses was made from insects, and the vermillion may well have been made from minerals (cinnabar). The violet skins are not referred to as ‘dyed’ but seem to have been that color naturally. So then, the Tabernacle had colors from all of nature: from sea and land, from plants, insects, animals, and minerals.

{35:26} et pilos caprarum, sponte propria cuncta tribuentes.
{35:26} and the hair of goats, donating everything of their own accord.

{35:27} Principes vero obtulerunt lapides onychinos, et gemmas ad superhumerale et rationale,
{35:27} Yet truly, the leaders offered onyx stones and gems, for the ephod and the breastplate,

{35:28} aromataque et oleum ad luminaria concinnanda, et ad præparandum unguentum, ac thymiama odoris suavissimi componendum.
{35:28} and aromatics and oil, to maintain the lights, and to prepare ointment, and also to produce incense with a most sweet odor.

{35:29} Omnes viri et mulieres mente devota obtulerunt donaria, ut fierent opera quæ iusserat Dominus per manum Moysi. Cuncti filii Israel voluntaria Domino dedicaverunt.
{35:29} All the men and women offered donations with a devout mind, so that the works might be done which the Lord had ordered by the hand of Moses. All the sons of Israel dedicated voluntary offerings to the Lord.

{35:30} Dixitque Moyses ad filios Israel: Ecce, vocavit Dominus ex nomine Beseleel filium Uri filii Hur de tribu Iuda.
{35:30} And Moses said to the sons of Israel: “Behold, the Lord has called by name Bezalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur, from the tribe of Judah,

{35:31} Implevitque eum Spiritu Dei, sapientia et intelligentia, et scientia et omni doctrina
{35:31} and he has filled him with the Spirit of God, with wisdom, and understanding, and knowledge, and all teaching,

{35:32} ad excogitandum, et faciendum opus in auro et argento, et ære,
{35:32} to design and to fashion, with gold and silver and brass,

{35:33} sculpendisque lapidibus, et opere carpentario. Quidquid fabre adinveniri potest,
{35:33} and with engraving stones, and with the skill of a carpenter. Whatever can be skillfully invented,

{35:34} dedit in corde eius: Ooliab quoque filium Achisamech de tribu Dan:
{35:34} he has given to his heart. It is likewise with Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach from the tribe of Dan.

{35:35} ambos erudivit sapientia, ut faciant opera abietarii, polymitarii, ac plumarii de hyacintho ac purpura, coccoque bis tincto, et bysso, et texant omnia, ac nova quæque reperiant.
{35:35} He has taught both of them wisdom, in order to do the work of carpentry, tapestry, and embroidery, from hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine linen, and every textile, and to discover whatever may be new.”

[Exodus 36]
[Exodus 36]

{36:1} Fecit ergo Beseleel, et Ooliab, et omnis vir sapiens, quibus dedit Dominus sapientiam et intellectum, ut scirent fabre operari quæ in usus Sanctuarii necessaria sunt, et quæ præcepit Dominus.
{36:1} Therefore, Bezalel, and Oholiab, and every wise man, to whom the Lord gave wisdom and intelligence, so as to know how to work skillfully, made that which was necessary for the uses of the Sanctuary and which the Lord had instructed.

{36:2} Cumque vocasset eos Moyses, et omnem eruditum virum, cui dederat Dominus sapientiam, et qui sponte sua obtulerant se ad faciendum opus,
{36:2} And when Moses had called them and every man of learning, to whom the Lord had given wisdom, and who, of their own accord, had offered themselves in order to accomplish this work,

{36:3} tradidit eis universa donaria filiorum Israel. Qui cum instarent operi, quotidie mane vota populus offerebat.
{36:3} he handed over to them all the donations of the sons of Israel. And while they were pursuing this work, the people offered what they had vowed each day, in the morning.

{36:4} Unde artifices venire compulsi,
{36:4} The artisans were compelled by this to go

{36:5} dixerunt Moysi: Plus offert populus quam necessarium est.
{36:5} to Moses and to say, “The people offer more than is needed.”

{36:6} Iussit ergo Moyses præconis voce cantari: Nec vir nec mulier quidquam offerat ultra in opere Sanctuarii. Sicque cessatum est a muneribus offerendis,
{36:6} Therefore, Moses ordered this to be recited, with a voice of proclamation: “Let neither man nor woman offer anything further for the work of the Sanctuary.” And so they ceased from offering gifts,

{36:7} eo quod oblata sufficerent et superabundarent.
{36:7} because what was offered was sufficient and was more than an abundance.

{36:8} Feceruntque omnes corde sapientes ad explendum opus tabernaculi, cortinas decem de bysso retorta, et hyacintho, et purpura, coccoque bis tincto, opere vario, et arte polymita:
{36:8} And all those who were wise of heart, in order to accomplish the work of the tabernacle, made ten curtains of fine twisted linen, and hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, with diverse workmanship by the art of embroidery.

{36:9} quarum una habebat in longitudine vigintiocto cubitos, et in latitudine quattuor. Una mensura erat omnium cortinarum.
{36:9} Each of these was twenty-eight cubits in length, and in width, four. All the curtains were of one measure.

{36:10} Coniunxitque cortinas quinque, alteram alteri, et alias quinque sibi invicem copulavit.
{36:10} And he joined five curtains to one another, and the other five he coupled to one another.

{36:11} Fecit et ansas hyacinthinas in ora cortinæ unius ex utroque latere, et in ora cortinæ alterius similiter,
{36:11} He also made loops of hyacinth along the edge of one curtain on both sides, and similarly along the edge of the other curtain,

{36:12} ut contra se invicem venirent ansæ, et mutuo iungerentur.
{36:12} so that the loops might meet against one another and might be joined together.

{36:13} Unde et quinquaginta fudit circulos aureos, qui morderent cortinarum ansas, et fieret unum tabernaculum.
{36:13} For these, he also cast fifty gold rings, which would retain the loops of the curtains and so make the tabernacle one.

{36:14} Fecit et saga undecim de pilis caprarum ad operiendum tectum tabernaculi:
{36:14} He also made eleven canopies from the hair of goats, in order to cover the roof of the tabernacle:

{36:15} unum sagum in longitudine habebat cubitos triginta, et in latitudine cubitos quattuor: unius mensuræ erant omnia saga:
{36:15} one canopy held in length thirty cubits, and in width four cubits. All the canopies were of one measure.

{36:16} quorum quinque iunxit seorsum, et sex alia separatim.
{36:16} Five of these he joined by themselves, and the other six separately.

{36:17} Fecitque ansas quinquaginta in ora sagi unius, et quinquaginta in ora sagi alterius, ut sibi invicem iungerentur.
{36:17} And he made fifty loops along the edge of one canopy, and fifty along the edge of the other canopy, so that they might be joined to one another,

{36:18} Et fibulas æneas quinquaginta, quibus necteretur tectum, ut unum pallium ex omnibus sagis fieret.
{36:18} and fifty buckles of brass, with which the roof might be woven together, so that from all the canopies there would be made one covering.

{36:19} Fecit et opertorium tabernaculi de pellibus arietum rubricatis: aliudque desuper velamentum de pellibus ianthinis.
{36:19} He also made a covering for the tabernacle from the skins of rams, dyed-red; and another cover above it, from violet skins.

{36:20} Fecit et tabulas tabernaculi de lignis setim stantes.
{36:20} He also made the standing panels of the tabernacle, from setim wood.

{36:21} Decem cubitorum erat longitudo tabulæ unius: et unum ac semis cubitum latitudo retinebat.
{36:21} Ten cubits was the length of one panel, and one and one half cubits comprised the width.

{36:22} Binæ incastraturæ erant per singulas tabulas, ut altera alteri iungeretur. Sic fecit in omnibus tabernaculi tabulis.
{36:22} There were two dovetails along every panel, so that one might be joined to the other. Thus did he make all the panels of the tabernacle.

{36:23} E quibus viginti ad plagam meridianam erant contra Austrum,
{36:23} Of these, twenty were toward the meridian area, opposite the south,

{36:24} cum quadraginta basibus argenteis. Duæ bases sub una tabula ponebantur ex utraque parte angulorum, ubi incastraturæ laterum in angulis terminantur.
{36:24} with forty bases of silver. Two bases were set under one panel at each of two sides at the corners, where the joints of the sides terminate in corners.

{36:25} Ad plagam quoque tabernaculi, quæ respicit ad Aquilonem, fecit viginti tabulas,
{36:25} Likewise, at that side of the tabernacle which looks toward the north, he made twenty panels,

{36:26} cum quadraginta basibus argenteis, duas bases per singulas tabulas.
{36:26} with forty bases of silver, two bases for each board.

{36:27} Contra Occidentem vero, id est, ad eam partem tabernaculi, quæ mare respicit, fecit sex tabulas,
{36:27} Yet truly, opposite the west, that is, toward that part of the tabernacle which looks out toward the sea, he made six panels,

{36:28} et duas alias per singulos angulos tabernaculi retro:
{36:28} and two others at each corner of the tabernacle at the back,

~ The word ‘retro’ refers to the back of the Tabernacle, which was toward the west. This end had two more panels than the east. Therefore, the entrance was at the east and was two panels (three royal cubits or just over 5 feet) in width, which is wide enough for two men to enter side by side.

{36:29} quæ iunctæ erant a deorsum usque sursum, et in unam compaginem pariter ferebantur. Ita fecit ex utraque parte per angulos:
{36:29} which were joined from bottom to top and held together by one joint. So did he make both corners on that side.

{36:30} ut octo essent simul tabulæ, et haberent bases argenteas sedecim, binas scilicet bases sub singulis tabulis.
{36:30} So then, there were altogether eight panels, and they had sixteen bases of silver, with, of course, two bases under each panel.

{36:31} Fecit et vectes de lignis setim, quinque ad continendas tabulas unius lateris tabernaculi,
{36:31} He also made bars from setim wood: five to hold together the panels at one side of the tabernacle,

{36:32} et quinque alios ad alterius lateris coaptandas tabulas: et extra hos, quinque alios vectes ad occidentalem plagam tabernaculi contra mare.
{36:32} and five others to fit together the panels of the other side, and, in addition to these, five other bars toward the western area of the tabernacle, opposite the sea.

{36:33} Fecit quoque vectem alium, qui per medias tabulas ab angulo usque ad angulum perveniret.
{36:33} He also made another bar, which came through the middle of the panels from corner to corner.

{36:34} Ipsa autem tabulata deauravit, fusis basibus earum argenteis. Et circulos eorum fecit aureos, per quos vectes induci possent: quos et ipsos laminis aureis operuit.
{36:34} But the panels themselves he overlaid with gold, casting silver bases for them. And he made their rings from gold, through which the bars might be able to be drawn. And he covered the bars themselves with layers of gold.

{36:35} Fecit et velum de hyacintho, et purpura, vermiculo, ac bysso retorta, opere polymitario, varium atque distinctum:
{36:35} He also made a veil from hyacinth, and purple, from vermillion as well as fine twisted linen, with varied and distinctive embroidery,

{36:36} et quattuor columnas de lignis setim, quas cum capitibus deauravit, fusis basibus earum argenteis.
{36:36} and four columns of setim wood, which, along with their heads, he overlaid with gold, casting silver bases for them.

{36:37} Fecit et tentorium in introitu tabernaculi ex hyacintho, purpura, vermiculo, byssoque retorta, opere plumarii:
{36:37} He also made a tent at the entrance of the tabernacle from hyacinth, purple, vermillion, and fine twisted linen, wrought with embroidery,

{36:38} et columnas quinque cum capitibus suis, quas operuit auro, basesque earum fudit æneas.
{36:38} and five columns with their heads, which he covered with gold, and he cast their bases from brass.

[Exodus 37]
[Exodus 37]

{37:1} Fecit autem Beseleel et arcam de lignis setim, habentem duos semis cubitos in longitudine, et cubitum ac semissem in latitudine, altitudo quoque unius cubiti fuit et dimidii: vestivitque eam auro purissimo intus ac foris.
{37:1} Now Bezalel also made the ark from setim wood, having two and one half cubits in length, and one and one half cubits in width, and the height was also one and one half cubits. And he clothed it with the purest gold, inside and out.

{37:2} Et fecit illi coronam auream per gyrum,
{37:2} And for it he made a crown of gold all around,

{37:3} conflans quattuor annulos aureos per quattuor angulos eius: duos annulos in latere uno, et duos in altero.
{37:3} casting four gold rings at its four corners: two rings on one side, and two on the other.

{37:4} Vectes quoque fecit de lignis setim, quos vestivit auro,
{37:4} Likewise, he made bars from setim wood, which he clothed with gold,

{37:5} et quos misit in annulos, qui erant in lateribus arcæ ad portandum eam.
{37:5} and he placed them into the rings, which were at the sides of the ark, to carry it.

{37:6} Fecit et propitiatorium, id est, oraculum, de auro mundissimo, duorum cubitorum et dimidii in longitudine, et cubiti ac semis in latitudine.
{37:6} He also made the propitiatory, that is, the oracle, from the finest gold, two and one half cubits in length, and one and one half cubits in width,

{37:7} Duos etiam Cherubim ex auro ductili, quos posuit ex utraque parte propitiatorii:
{37:7} and then two Cherubim of ductile gold, which he positioned at the two sides of the propitiatory:

{37:8} Cherub unum in summitate unius partis, et Cherub alterum in summitate partis alterius: duos Cherubim in singulis summitatibus propitiatorii,
{37:8} one Cherub at the top of one side, and the other Cherub at the top of the other side. The two Cherubim were at each end of the propitiatory,

{37:9} extendentes alas, et tegentes propitiatorium, seque mutuo et illud respicientes.
{37:9} spreading their wings, and protecting the propitiatory, and gazing toward it and toward one another.

{37:10} Fecit et mensam de lignis setim, in longitudine duorum cubitorum, et in latitudine unius cubiti, quæ habebat in altitudine cubitum ac semissem.
{37:10} He also made the table from setim wood, with a length of two cubits, and a width of one cubit, which had a height of one and one half cubits.

{37:11} Circumdeditque eam auro mundissimo, et fecit illi labium aureum per gyrum,
{37:11} And he surrounded it with the finest gold, and for it he made a ledge of gold all around,

{37:12} ipsique labio coronam auream interrasilem quattuor digitorum, et super eamdem, alteram coronam auream.
{37:12} and for the ledge itself he made a polished crown of gold, four fingers high, and upon the same, another crown of gold.

{37:13} Fudit et quattuor circulos aureos, quos posuit in quattuor angulis per singulos pedes mensæ
{37:13} And he cast four gold rings, which he set at the four corners at each foot of the table,

{37:14} contra coronam: misitque in eos vectes, ut possit mensa portari.
{37:14} opposite the crown. And he placed the bars into them, so that the table could be carried.

{37:15} Ipsos quoque vectes fecit de lignis setim, et circumdedit eos auro.
{37:15} Likewise, the bars themselves he made from setim wood, and he surrounded them with gold.

{37:16} Et vasa ad diversos usus mensæ, acetabula, phialas, et cyathos, et thuribula, ex auro puro, in quibus offerenda sunt libamina.
{37:16} And he made vessels for the diverse uses of the table, as well as the little cups, and bowls, and measuring cups, and the censers, from pure gold, in which the libations would be offered.

{37:17} Fecit et candelabrum ductile de auro mundissimo. De cuius vecte calami, scyphi, sphærulæque ac lilia procedebant:
{37:17} He also made the lampstand, formed from the finest gold. The branches, bowls, and little spheres, as well as the lilies, proceeded from its bar:

{37:18} sex in utroque latere, tres calami ex parte una, et tres ex altera:
{37:18} six on the two sides, three branches on one side, and three on the other.

{37:19} tres scyphi in nucis modum per calamos singulos, sphærulæque simul et lilia: et tres scyphi instar nucis in calamo altero, sphærulæque simul et lilia. Æquum erat opus sex calamorum, qui procedebant de stipite candelabri.
{37:19} Three bowls, the size of a nut, were on each branch, with little spheres and lilies, and three bowls, in the likeness of a nut, were on the other branch, with the little spheres together with the lilies. The workmanship of the six branches, which proceeded from the shaft of the lampstand, was equal.

{37:20} In ipso autem vecte erant quattuor scyphi in nucis modum, sphærulæque per singulos simul et lilia:
{37:20} Now on the shaft itself were four bowls, the size of a nut, and little spheres together with each one, and lilies,

{37:21} et sphærulæ sub duobus calamis per loca tria, qui simul sex fiunt calami procedentes de vecte uno.
{37:21} and little spheres under two branches in three places, which together made six branches proceeding from one bar.

~ The bar ‘vecte’ appears to be different than the shaft ‘stipite.’ I think that the bar is horizontal and the shaft vertical.

{37:22} Et sphærulæ igitur, et calami ex ipso erant, universa ductilia ex auro purissimo.
{37:22} Thus, both the little spheres and the branches were from the same thing: all hand-worked from the purest gold.

{37:23} Fecit et lucernas septem cum emunctoriis suis, et vasa ubi ea quæ emuncta sunt, extinguantur, de auro mundissimo.
{37:23} He also made the seven lamps with their candle snuffers, and the vessels where the candles would be extinguished, from the finest gold.

{37:24} Talentum auri appendebat candelabrum cum omnibus vasis suis.
{37:24} The lampstand with all its vessels weighed a talent of gold.

~ A talent of gold is about 66 pounds.

{37:25} Fecit et altare thymiamatis de lignis setim, per quadrum singulos habens cubitos, et in altitudine duos: e cuius angulis procedebant cornua.
{37:25} He also made the altar of incense from setim wood, having one cubit on each of four sides, and in height, two. From its corners proceeded horns.

{37:26} Vestivitque illud auro purissimo cum craticula ac parietibus et cornibus.
{37:26} And he clothed it with the purest gold, with its grating, as well as the sides and the horns.

{37:27} Fecitque ei coronam aureolam per gyrum, et duos annulos aureos sub corona per singula latera, ut mittantur in eos vectes, et possit altare portari.
{37:27} And for it he made a crown of gold all around, and two gold rings under the crown at each side, so that the bars might be put into them, and the altar could be carried.

{37:28} Ipsos autem vectes fecit de lignis setim, et operuit laminis aureis.
{37:28} Now the bars themselves he also made from setim wood, and he covered them with layers of gold.

{37:29} Composuit et oleum ad sanctificationis unguentum, et thymiama de aromatibus mundissimis opere pigmentarii.
{37:29} He also composed the oil for the ointment of sanctification, and the incense, from the purest aromatics, with the skill of a perfumer.

~ The word ‘pigmentarii’ refers to someone who makes and sells paints, cosmetics, and ointments.

[Exodus 38]
[Exodus 38]

{38:1} Fecit et altare holocausti de lignis setim, quinque cubitorum per quadrum, et trium in altitudine:
{38:1} He also made the altar of holocaust from setim wood: five cubits square, and three in height,

{38:2} cuius cornua de angulis procedebant, operuitque illum laminis æneis.
{38:2} the horns of which proceeded from the corners. And he covered it with layers of brass.

{38:3} Et in usus eius paravit ex ære vasa diversa, lebetes, forcipes, fuscinulas, uncinos, et ignium receptacula.
{38:3} And for its uses, he prepared diverse vessels out of brass: kettles, forceps, little hooks, larger hooks, and receptacles for the fire.

~ The word ‘fuscinulas’ refers to smaller hooks, sometimes with three hooks joined; the word ‘uncinos’ refers to a single larger hook.

{38:4} Craticulamque eius in modum retis fecit æneam, et subter eam in altaris medio arulam,
{38:4} And he made its grating of brass, in the manner of a net, and under it, in the midst of the altar, its base,

{38:5} fusis quattuor annulis per totidem retiaculi summitates, ad immittendos vectes ad portandum:
{38:5} casting four rings at the four ends of the net in order to set the bars, so as to carry it.

{38:6} quos et ipsos fecit de lignis setim, et operuit laminis æneis:
{38:6} These bars he also made of setim wood, and he covered them with layers of brass.

{38:7} induxitque in circulos, qui in lateribus altaris eminebant. Ipsum autem altare non erat solidum, sed cavum ex tabulis, et intus vacuum.
{38:7} And he drew them through the rings, which projected from the sides of the altar. But the altar itself was not solid, but hollow, made from panels and empty inside.

{38:8} Fecit et labrum æneum cum basi sua de speculis mulierum, quæ excubabant in ostio tabernaculi.
{38:8} He also made the washtub of brass, with its base made from the mirrors of the women who kept watch at the door of the tabernacle.

~ The women at the door of the tabernacle had mirrors with them, probably so that they could look into the tabernacle. They were not allowed to enter the tabernacle. This may have been the Tabernacle that was being worked on, for the parts would have to be assembled to assure that they were made to the correct specifications. Or it may have been the existing tent which held the ark and the tablets of the testimony prior to the building of the Tabernacle.

{38:9} Fecit et atrium, in cuius australi plaga erant tentoria de bysso retorta, cubitorum centum,
{38:9} He also made the atrium, at the south side of which were hangings of fine twisted linen of one hundred cubits and

{38:10} columnæ æneæ viginti cum basibus suis, capita columnarum, et tota operis cælatura, argentea.
{38:10} twenty columns of brass with their bases. The heads of the columns and all of the engraving work were of silver.

{38:11} Æque ad septentrionalem plagam tentoria, columnæ, basesque et capita columarum eiusdem mensuræ, et operis ac metalli, erant.
{38:11} Equally, at the northern area, the hangings, the columns, and the bases and heads of the columns were of the same measure and work and metal.

{38:12} In ea vero plaga, quæ ad Occidentem respicit, fuerunt tentoria cubitorum quinquaginta, columnæ decem cum basibus suis æneæ, et capita columnarum, et tota operis cælatura, argentea.
{38:12} Yet truly, on that side which looks out toward the west, there were hangings of fifty cubits, and ten columns with their bases of brass. And the heads of the columns and all of the engraving work were of silver.

{38:13} Porro contra orientem quinquaginta cubitorum paravit tentoria:
{38:13} Furthermore, toward the east, he prepared hangings of fifty cubits:

{38:14} e quibus, quindecim cubitos columnarum trium, cum basibus suis unum tenebat latus:
{38:14} of which, there were fifteen cubits, among three columns with their bases, holding up one side,

{38:15} et in parte altera (quia inter utraque introitum tabernaculi fecit) quindecim æque cubitorum erant tentoria, columnæque tres, et bases totidem.
{38:15} and on the other side, (for between the two he made the entrance of the tabernacle) there were equally hangings of fifteen cubits, and three pillars, and the same number of bases.

~ The Temple of Jerusalem was a symbol and foreshadowing of the Christ. The Tabernacle that prepared for the Temple was a symbol and foreshadowing of the Virgin Mary.

{38:16} Cuncta atrii tentoria byssus retorta texuerat.
{38:16} All the hangings of the atrium were woven from fine twisted linen.

{38:17} Bases columnarum fuere æneæ, capita autem earum cum cunctis cælaturis suis argentea: sed et ipsas columnas atrii vestivit argento.
{38:17} The bases of the columns were of brass, but their heads with all of their engravings were of silver. Now he also overlaid the columns of the atrium themselves with silver.

{38:18} Et in introitu eius opere plumario fecit tentorium ex hyacintho, purpura, vermiculo, ac bysso retorta, quod habebat viginti cubitos in longitudine, altitudo vero quinque cubitorum erat iuxta mensuram, quam cuncta atrii tentoria habebant.
{38:18} And he made, at its entrance, a hanging, wrought with embroidery, of hyacinth, purple, vermillion, and fine twisted linen, which held twenty cubits in length, yet truly it was five cubits in height, as with the measure of all the hangings of the atrium.

{38:19} Columnæ autem in ingressu fuere quattuor cum basibus æneis, capitaque earum et cælaturæ argenteæ.
{38:19} Now the columns at the entrance were four, with bases of brass, and their heads and engravings were of silver.

{38:20} Paxillos quoque tabernaculi et atrii per gyrum fecit æneos.
{38:20} Likewise, the tent pegs of the tabernacle and the atrium all around he made of brass.

{38:21} Hæc sunt instrumena tabernaculi testimonii, quæ enumerata sunt iuxta præceptum Moysi in cæremoniis Levitarum per manum Ithamar filii Aaron sacerdotis:
{38:21} These are the instruments of the tabernacle of the testimony, which were enumerated according to the instruction of Moses, with the ceremonies of the Levites, by the hand of Ithamar, the son of Aaron the priest,

{38:22} quæ Beseleel filius Uri filii Hur de tribu Iuda, Domino per Moysen iubente, compleverat,
{38:22} which Bezalel, the son of Uri, the son of Hur from the tribe of Judah, had completed, just as the Lord decreed through Moses.

{38:23} iuncto sibi socio Ooliab filio Achisamech de tribu Dan: qui et ipse artifex lignorum egregius fuit, et polymitarius atque plumarius ex hyacintho, purpura, vermiculo, et bysso.
{38:23} He was joined by his associate, Oholiab, the son of Ahisamach, from the tribe of Dan, who himself was also an exceptional artisan of wood, and of weaving, as well as of embroidery, with hyacinth, purple, vermillion, and fine linen.

{38:24} Omne aurum quod expensum est in opere Sanctuarii, et quod oblatum est in donariis, viginti novem talentorum fuit, et septingentorum triginta siclorum ad mensuram Sanctuarii.
{38:24} All of the gold that was expended in the work of the Sanctuary, and that was offered in donation, was twenty-nine talents and seven hundred thirty shekels, according to the measure of the Sanctuary.

~ This was about 2,000 pounds of gold. Almost all of this gold came from the Egyptians (who gave it to the Israelites as they were leaving), for the Israelites possessed very little during their servitude in Egypt.

{38:25} Oblatum est autem ab his qui transierunt ad numerum a viginti annis et supra, de sexcentis tribus millibus, et quingentis quinquaginta, armatorum.
{38:25} Now it was offered by those who were past the numbering of twenty years and above: from six hundred and three thousand, five hundred and fifty men able to bear arms.

{38:26} Fuerunt præterea centum talenta argenti, e quibus conflatæ sunt bases Sanctuarii, et introitus ubi velum pendet.
{38:26} There were, beyond that, one hundred talents of silver, from which were cast the bases for the Sanctuary and for the entrance where the veil hangs.

{38:27} Centum bases factæ sunt de talentis centum, singulis talentis per bases singulas supputatis.
{38:27} One hundred bases were made from one hundred talents, a single talent being counted for each base.

{38:28} De mille autem septingentis, et septuaginta quinque fecit capita columnarum, quas et ipsas vestivit argento.
{38:28} But from one thousand seven hundred and seventy-five, he made the heads of the columns, which he also clothed with silver.

~ It is not clear whether this weight refers to talents or to shekels. If the silver refers only to the silver at the heads of the columns, then it would be shekels.

{38:29} Æris quoque oblata sunt talenta septuaginta duo millia, et quadringenti supra sicli,
{38:29} Likewise, of brass, there was offered seventy-two thousand talents, and four hundred more shekels,

{38:30} ex quibus fusæ sunt bases in introitu tabernaculi testimonii, et altare æneum cum craticula sua, omniaque vasa, quæ ad usum eius pertinent,
{38:30} from which were cast the bases at the entrance of the tabernacle of the testimony, and the altar of brass with its grating, and the vessels which pertain to its use,

{38:31} et bases atrii tam in circuitu quam in ingressu eius, et paxilli tabernaculi atque atrii, per gyrum.
{38:31} and the bases of the atrium, as much at the circumference as at its entrance, and the tent pegs of the tabernacle and of the atrium all round.

[Exodus 39]
[Exodus 39]

{39:1} De hyacintho vero et purpura, vermiculo ac bysso fecit vestes, quibus indueretur Aaron quando ministrabat in sanctis, sicut præcepit Dominus Moysi.
{39:1} Truly, from hyacinth and purple, vermillion and fine linen, he made the vestments with which Aaron was clothed when he ministered in the holy places, just as the Lord instructed Moses.

{39:2} Fecit igitur superhumerale de auro, hyacintho, et purpura, coccoque bis tincto, et bysso retorta,
{39:2} And so he made an ephod of gold, hyacinth, and purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine twisted linen,

{39:3} opere polymitario, inciditque bracteas aureas, et extenuavit in fila, ut possent torqueri cum priorum colorum subtegmine,
{39:3} wrought with embroidery. And he cut thin strips of gold and drew them into threads, so that they could be twisted into the weave of the first colors.

{39:4} duasque oras sibi invicem copulatas in utroque latere summitatum,
{39:4} And he made two edges, coupled to one another at the top of both sides,

{39:5} et balteum ex eisdem coloribus, sicut præceperat Dominus Moysi.
{39:5} and a wide belt from the same colors, just as the Lord had instructed Moses.

{39:6} Paravit et duos lapides onychinos, astrictos et inclusos auro, et sculptos arte gemmaria, nominibus filiorum Israel:
{39:6} He also prepared two onyx stones, set and enclosed in gold, and engraved with the skill of a jeweler, with the names of the sons of Israel.

{39:7} posuitque eos in lateribus superhumeralis in monimentum filiorum Israel, sicut præceperat Dominus Moysi.
{39:7} And he set them in the sides of the ephod, as a memorial to the sons of Israel, just as the Lord had instructed Moses.

{39:8} Fecit et rationale opere polymito iuxta opus superhumeralis, ex auro, hyacintho, purpura, coccoque bis tincto, et bysso retorta:
{39:8} He also made a breastplate, wrought with embroidery, according to the work of the ephod, from gold, hyacinth, purple, and twice-dyed scarlet, and fine twisted linen:

{39:9} quadrangulum, duplex, mensuræ palmi.
{39:9} with four equal sides, doubled, of the measure of the palm of a hand.

{39:10} Et posuit in eo gemmarum ordines quattuor. In primo versu erat sardius, topazius, smaragdus.
{39:10} And he set four rows of gems in it. In the first row was a sardius stone, a topaz, an emerald;

{39:11} In secundo, carbunculus, sapphirus, et iaspis.
{39:11} in the second was a garnet, a sapphire, and a jasper;

{39:12} In tertio, ligurius, achates, et amethystus.
{39:12} in the third was a zircon, an agate, and an amethyst;

{39:13} In quarto, chrysolithus, onychinus, et beryllus, circumdati et inclusi auro per ordines suos.
{39:13} in the fourth was a chrysolite, an onyx, and a beryl, surrounded and enclosed in gold by their rows.

{39:14} Ipsique lapides duodecim, sculpti erant nominibus duodecim tribuum Israel, singuli per nomina singulorum.
{39:14} And these twelve stones were engraved with the names of the twelve tribes of Israel, each one with a single name.

{39:15} Fecerunt in rationali et catenulas sibi invicem cohærentes, de auro purissimo:
{39:15} They also made, in the breastplate, little chains linked to one another, from the purest gold,

{39:16} et duos uncinos, totidemque annulos aureos. Porro annulos posuerunt in utroque latere rationalis,
{39:16} and two hooks, and the same number of gold rings. Moreover, they set the rings at both sides of the breastplate,

{39:17} e quibus penderent duæ catenæ aureæ, quas inseruerunt uncinis, qui in superhumeralis angulis eminebant.
{39:17} from which two golden chains would hang, which they connected with the hooks that projected from the corners of the ephod.

{39:18} Hæc et ante et retro ita conveniebant sibi, ut superhumerale et rationale mutuo necterentur,
{39:18} These were both in front and in back so that they met one another, and so that the ephod and the breastplate were woven together,

{39:19} stricta ad balteum et annulis fortius copulata, quos iungebat vitta hyacinthina, ne laxa fluerent, et a se invicem moverentur, sicut præcepit Dominus Moysi.
{39:19} being fastened to the wide belt and strongly coupled with rings, to which a hyacinth band was joined, lest they should shake loose and be moved away from one another, just as the Lord instructed Moses.

{39:20} Feceruntque quoque tunicam superhumeralis totam hyacinthinam,
{39:20} They also made the tunic of the ephod entirely from hyacinth,

{39:21} et capitium in superiori parte contra medium, oramque per gyrum capitii textilem:
{39:21} with the head in the upper part at the middle, and a woven edge all around the head.

{39:22} deorsum autem ad pedes mala punica ex hyacintho, purpura, vermiculo, ac bysso retorta:
{39:22} Then, at the feet below, they also made pomegranates from hyacinth, purple, vermillion, and fine twisted linen,

{39:23} et tintinnabula de auro purissimo, quæ posuerunt inter malogranata in extrema parte tunicæ per gyrum:
{39:23} and little bells from the purest gold, which they set between the pomegranates at the very bottom of the tunic all around.

{39:24} tintinnabulum autem aureum, et malum punicum, quibus ornatus incedebat pontifex quando ministerio fungebatur, sicut præceperat Dominus Moysi.
{39:24} So then, the high priest approached, adorned with gold bell and pomegranate, when he performed his ministry, just as the Lord had instructed Moses.

{39:25} Fecerunt et tunicas byssinas opere textili Aaron et filiis eius:
{39:25} They also made fine linen tunics with woven work, for Aaron and his sons,

{39:26} et mitras cum coronulis suis ex bysso:
{39:26} and headdresses with their little crowns of fine linen,

{39:27} feminalia quoque linea, byssina:
{39:27} and also linen undergarments of fine linen.

{39:28} cingulum vero de bysso retorta, hyacintho, purpura, ac vermiculo bis tincto arte plumaria, sicut præceperat Dominus Moysi.
{39:28} Truly, they also made a wide band of fine twisted linen, hyacinth, purple, as well as vermillion, twice-dyed, with skillful embroidery, just as the Lord had instructed Moses.

{39:29} Fecerunt et laminam sacræ venerationis de auro purissimo, scripseruntque in ea opere gemmario, Sanctum Domini:
{39:29} They also made the plate of sacred veneration from the purest gold, and they wrote on it, with the skill of a jeweler: “Holy to the Lord.”

{39:30} et strinxerunt eam cum mitra vitta hyacinthina, sicut præceperat Dominus Moysi.
{39:30} And they fastened it to the headdress with a hyacinth band, just as the Lord had instructed Moses.

{39:31} Perfectum est igitur omne opus tabernaculi et tecti testimonii: feceruntque filii Israel cuncta quæ præceperat Dominus Moysi.
{39:31} And so all the work of the tabernacle and of the covering of the testimony was completed. And the sons of Israel did all that the Lord had instructed Moses.

~ The covering of the ark of the testimony was apparently the last object to be completed. This makes sense because the work of making two large Cherubim out of pure gold must have been very difficult and must have required the most skill and time.

{39:32} Et obtulerunt tabernaculum et tectum et universam supellectilem, annulos, tabulas, vectes, columnas ac bases,
{39:32} And they offered the tabernacle, and the covering, and all of the articles: the rings, the panels, the bars, the columns and bases,

{39:33} opertorium de pellibus arietum rubricatis, et aliud operimentum de ianthinis pellibus:
{39:33} the cover of the skins of rams, dyed red, and the other cover of violet skins,

{39:34} velum, arcam, vectes, propitiatorium:
{39:34} the veil, the ark, the bars, the propitiatory,

{39:35} mensam cum vasis suis et propositionis panibus:
{39:35} the table, with its vessels and the bread of the presence,

{39:36} candelabrum, lucernas, et utensilia earum cum oleo:
{39:36} the lampstand, the lamps, and their utensils with the oil,

{39:37} altare aureum, et unguentum, et thymiama ex aromatibus:
{39:37} the altar of gold, and the ointment, and the incense of aromatics,

{39:38} et tentorium in introitu tabernaculi:
{39:38} and the tent at the entrance of the tabernacle,

{39:39} altare æneum, retiaculum, vectes, et vasa eius omnia: labrum cum basi sua: tentoria atrii, et columnas cum basibus suis:
{39:39} the altar of brass, the grating, the bars, and all of its vessels, the washtub with its base, the hangings of the atrium, and the columns with their bases,

{39:40} tentorium in introitu atrii, funiculosque illius et paxillos. Nihil ex vasis defuit, quæ in ministerium tabernaculi, et in tectum fœderis iussa sunt fieri.
{39:40} the hanging at the entrance of the atrium, and their little cords and pegs. Nothing was lacking of the articles that were commanded to be made for the ministry of the tabernacle and for the covering of the covenant.

{39:41} Vestes quoque, quibus sacerdotes utuntur in Sanctuario, Aaron scilicet et filii eius,
{39:41} Likewise, the vestments, which the priests, namely, Aaron and his sons, make use of use in the Sanctuary,

{39:42} obtulerunt filii Israel, sicut præceperat Dominus.
{39:42} the sons of Israel offered, just as the Lord had instructed.

{39:43} Quæ postquam Moyses cuncta vidit completa, benedixit eis.
{39:43} After this, when Moses saw that everything was completed, he blessed them.

[Exodus 40]
[Exodus 40]

{40:1} Locutusque est Dominus ad Moysen, dicens:
{40:1} And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying:

{40:2} Mense primo, prima die mensis, eriges tabernaculum testimonii,
{40:2} “In the first month, on the first day of the month, you shall raise the tabernacle of the testimony,

~ The Israelites would have had to partially assemble the Tabernacle of the Testimony in advance of this date, as they were building its components, in order to assure that it was made to the correct size and shape.

{40:3} et pones in eo arcam, dimittesque ante illam velum:
{40:3} and you shall place the ark in it, and you shall release the veil before it.

{40:4} et illata mensa, pones super eam quæ rite præcepta sunt. Candelabrum stabit cum lucernis suis,
{40:4} And having brought in the table, you shall place the things which were solemnly commanded upon it. The lampstand shall stand with its lamps,

{40:5} et altare aureum in quo adoletur incensum, coram arca testimonii. Tentorium in introitu tabernaculi pones,
{40:5} and the altar of gold, in which the incense is burned, shall stand before the ark of the testimony. You shall place the tent at the entrance of the tabernacle,

{40:6} et ante illud altare holocausti:
{40:6} and before it, the altar of holocaust.

{40:7} labrum inter altare et tabernaculum, quod implebis aqua.
{40:7} The washtub shall stand between the altar and the tabernacle, and you shall fill it with water.

{40:8} Circumdabisque atrium tentoriis, et ingressum eius.
{40:8} And you shall encompass the atrium and its entrance with hangings.

{40:9} Et assumpto unctionis oleo unges tabernaculum cum vasis suis, ut sanctificentur:
{40:9} And, having taken up the oil of unction, you shall anoint the tabernacle along with its articles, so that they may be sanctified.

{40:10} altare holocausti et omnia vasa eius:
{40:10} The altar of holocaust and all its vessels,

{40:11} labrum cum basi sua: omnia unctionis oleo consecrabis, ut sint Sancta sanctorum.
{40:11} the washtub with its base, and all things, you shall consecrate with the oil of unction, so that they may be the Holy of holies.

{40:12} Applicabisque Aaron et filios eius ad fores tabernaculi testimonii, et lotos aqua
{40:12} And you shall bring forward Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the tabernacle of the testimony, and, having washed them with water,

{40:13} indues sanctis vestibus, ut ministrent mihi, et unctio eorum in sacerdotium sempiternum proficiat.
{40:13} you shall clothe them in the holy vestments, so that they may minister to me, and so that their unction may accomplish an everlasting priesthood.”

{40:14} Fecitque Moyses omnia quæ præceperat Dominus.
{40:14} And Moses did all that the Lord had instructed.

{40:15} Igitur mense primo anni secundi, prima die mensis, collocatum est tabernaculum.
{40:15} Therefore, in the first month of the second year, on the first day of the month, the tabernacle was put in place.

{40:16} Erexitque Moyses illud, et posuit tabulas ac bases et vectes, statuitque columnas,
{40:16} And Moses raised it up, and he positioned the panels as well as the bases and the bars, and he set up the columns,

{40:17} et expandit tectum super tabernaculum, imposito desuper operimento, sicut Dominus imperaverat.
{40:17} and he stretched out the roof over the tabernacle, imposing a cover above it, just as the Lord had decreed.

{40:18} Posuit et testimonium in arca, subditis infra vectibus, et oraculum desuper.
{40:18} And he placed the testimony in the ark, applying the bars beneath, and the oracle above.

{40:19} Cumque intulisset arcam in tabernaculum, appendit ante eam velum ut expleret Domini iussionem.
{40:19} And when he had brought the ark into the tabernacle, he drew the veil before it, in order to fulfill the commandment of the Lord.

{40:20} Posuit et mensam in tabernaculo testimonii ad plagam Septentrionalem extra velum,
{40:20} And he placed the table in the tabernacle of the testimony, at the north side, beyond the veil,

{40:21} ordinatis coram propositionis panibus, sicut præceperat Dominus Moysi.
{40:21} arranging before it the bread of the presence, just as the Lord had instructed Moses.

{40:22} Posuit et candelabrum in tabernaculo testimonii e regione mensæ in parte australi,
{40:22} And he placed the lampstand in the tabernacle of the testimony, away from the table, on the south side,

{40:23} locatis per ordinem lucernis, iuxta præceptum Domini.
{40:23} setting the lamps in order, according to the precept of the Lord.

{40:24} Posuit et altare aureum sub tecto testimonii contra velum,
{40:24} He also positioned the altar of gold under the roof of the testimony, opposite the veil,

{40:25} et adolevit super eo incensum aromatum, sicut iusserat Dominus Moysi.
{40:25} and he heaped upon it the incense of aromatics, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

{40:26} Posuit et tentorium in introitu tabernaculi testimonii,
{40:26} And he positioned the tent at the entrance of the tabernacle of the testimony,

{40:27} et altare holocausti in vestibulo testimonii, offerens in eo holocaustum, et sacrificia, ut Dominus imperaverat.
{40:27} and the altar of holocaust in the vestibule of the testimony, offering the holocaust and the sacrifices upon it, just as the Lord had decreed.

{40:28} Labrum quoque statuit inter tabernaculum testimonii et altare, implens illud aqua.
{40:28} Likewise, he stationed the washtub between the tabernacle of the testimony and the altar, filling it with water.

{40:29} Laveruntque Moyses et Aaron, ac filii eius manus suas et pedes,
{40:29} And Moses and Aaron, along with his sons, washed their hands and feet,

{40:30} cum ingrederentur tectum fœderis, et accederent ad altare, sicut præceperat Dominus Moysi.
{40:30} whenever they would enter the covering of the covenant, and when they approached to the altar, just as the Lord had instructed Moses.

{40:31} Erexit et atrium per gyrum tabernaculi et altaris, ducto in introitu eius tentorio. Postquam omnia perfecta sunt,
{40:31} And he raised up the atrium around the tabernacle and the altar, drawing the hanging at its entrance. After all these things were perfected,

{40:32} operuit nubes tabernaculum testimonii, et gloria Domini implevit illud.
{40:32} the cloud covered the tabernacle of the testimony, and the glory of the Lord filled it.

{40:33} Nec poterat Moyses ingredi tectum fœderis, nube operiente omnia, et maiestate Domini coruscante, quia cuncta nubes operuerat.
{40:33} Neither could Moses enter the covering of the covenant: the cloud was covering all things, and the majesty of the Lord was flashing. For the cloud had covered everything.

{40:34} Si quando nubes tabernaculum deserebat, proficiscebantur filii Israel per turmas suas:
{40:34} Whenever the cloud departed from the tabernacle, the sons of Israel set out by their companies.

{40:35} si pendebat desuper, manebant in eodem loco.
{40:35} But if it remained hanging over it, they remained in the same place.

{40:36} Nubes quippe Domini incubabat per diem tabernaculo, et ignis in nocte, videntibus cunctis populis Israel per cunctas mansiones suas.
{40:36} Certainly, the cloud of the Lord lay over the tabernacle by day, and the fire by night, being seen by all the people of Israel throughout all their resting places.

~ The implication of the word ‘mansiones’ is that the Israelites were on the move, so that the word ‘mansiones’ refers to whatever place at which they were temporarily residing.



The Sacred BibleThe Book of Exodus