The Sacred BibleThe Book of Ruth
1 2 3 4
[Liber Ruth 1]
[The Book of Ruth 1]

{1:1} In diebus unius iudicis, quando iudices prćerant, facta est fames in Terra. Abiitque homo de Bethlehem Iuda, ut peregrinaretur in regione Moabitide cum uxore sua, ac duobus liberis.
{1:1} In the days of one of the judges, when the judges ruled, there was a famine in the land. And a man from Bethlehem in Judah departed to sojourn in the region of the Moabites with his wife and two children.

~ The usual word for children is pueri, but this word can also mean servants. So the word liberis is used, which means children, but which can also mean free (i.e., not in servitude).

{1:2} Ipse vocabatur Elimelech, et uxor eius Noemi: et duo filii, alter Mahalon, et alter Chelion, Ephrathći de Bethlehem Iuda. Ingressique regionem Moabitidem, morabantur ibi.
{1:2} He called himself Elimelech, and his wife Naomi, and his two sons, the one Mahlon, and the other Chilion, Ephrathites from Bethlehem in Judah. And entering into the region of the Moabites, they stayed there.

{1:3} Et mortuus est Elimelech maritus Noemi: remansitque ipsa cum filiis.
{1:3} And Elimelech the husband of Naomi died; and she remained with her sons.

{1:4} Qui acceperunt uxores Moabitidas, quarum una vocabatur Orpha, altera vero Ruth. Manseruntque ibi decem annis,
{1:4} They took wives from among the Moabites, of whom one was called Orpah, and the other Ruth. And they lived there ten years.

{1:5} et ambo mortui sunt, Mahalon videlicet et Chelion: remansitque mulier orbata duobus liberis ac marito.
{1:5} And they both died, namely Mahlon and Chilion, and the woman was left alone, bereaved of her two children and her husband.

{1:6} Et surrexit ut in patriam pergeret cum utraque nuru sua de regione Moabitide: audierat enim quod respexisset Dominus populum suum, et dedisset eis escas.
{1:6} And she arose so that she might journey to her native land, with both her daughters-in-law, from the region of the Moabites. For she had heard that the Lord had provided for his people and had given them food.

{1:7} Egressa est itaque de loco peregrinationis suć, cum utraque nuru: et iam in via revertendi posita in Terram Iuda,
{1:7} And so she departed from the place of her sojourn, with both her daughters-in-law, and having set out upon the way, she was about to return to the land of Judah.

{1:8} dixit ad eas: Ite in domum matris vestrć, faciat vobiscum Dominus misericordiam, sicut fecistis cum mortuis et mecum.
{1:8} She said to them, “Go to the home of your mother. May the Lord deal mercifully with you, just as you have dealt with the dead and with me.

{1:9} Det vobis invenire requiem in domibus virorum, quos sortiturć estis. Et osculata est eas. Quć elevata voce flere cśperunt,
{1:9} May he grant you to find rest in the houses of the husbands, whom you will obtain by lot.” And she kissed them. They lifted up their voice, and began to weep,

~ The word sortiturae is hard to translate because it refers to the idea that one obtains something by chance or good fortune, but also under the Providence of God. The expression “obtain by lot” is metaphorical; women did not cast lots to obtain husbands. Notice that the word virorum or vir is used to mean husband. The word vir is related to the word virtus, meaning strength or virtue. Though the word vir is often used to mean man or husband, it is also somewhat complimentary in nature, since it is related to the word virtus. This is analogous to the English word gentleman; it refers to a man in a somewhat complimentary fashion. The word used to simply refer to a man without such a built-in compliment is homo (singular) or homines (plural).

{1:10} et dicere: Tecum pergemus ad populum tuum.
{1:10} and to say, “We will journey with you to your people.”

{1:11} Quibus illa respondit: Revertimini filić meć, cur venitis mecum? num ultra habeo filios in utero meo, ut viros ex me sperare possitis?
{1:11} But she answered them, “Return, my daughters. Why come with me? Do I have any more sons in my womb, so that you could hope for husbands from me?

{1:12} Revertimini filić meć, et abite: iam enim senectute confecta sum, nec apta vinculo coniugali. Etiam si possem hac nocte concipere, et parere filios,
{1:12} Return, my daughters, go forth. For I am now exhausted by old age, and not fit for the bond of marriage. Even if I were to conceive on this night, and bear sons,

~ The word vinculo literally means chain, as in the chain of marriage.

{1:13} si eos expectare velitis donec crescant, et annos pubertatis impleant, ante eritis vetulć quam nubatis. Nolite, qućso, filić meć: quia vestra angustia magis me premit, et egressa est manus Domini contra me.
{1:13} if you were willing to wait until they were grown and had completed the years of adolescence, you would be elderly before you could marry. Do not do so, I beg you, my daughters. For your difficulties weigh upon me greatly, and the hand of the Lord has been set against me.”

{1:14} Elevata igitur voce, rursum flere cśperunt, Orpha osculata est socrum, ac reversa est: Ruth adhćsit socrui suć.
{1:14} In response, they lifted up their voice and began to weep again. Orpah kissed her mother-in-law, and then turned back. Ruth clung to her mother-in-law.

{1:15} Cui dixit Noemi: En reversa est cognata tua ad populum suum, et ad deos suos, vade cum ea.
{1:15} Naomi said to her, “See, your kinswoman returns to her people, and to her gods. Hurry after her.”

{1:16} Quć respondit: Ne adverseris mihi ut relinquam te et abeam: quocumque enim perrexeris, pergam: et ubi morata fueris, et ego pariter morabor. Populus tuus populus meus, et Deus tuus Deus meus.
{1:16} She answered, “Do not be against me, as if I would abandon you and go away; for wherever you will go, I will go, and where you will stay, I also will stay with you. Your people are my people, and your God is my God.

{1:17} Quć te terra morientem susceperit, in ea moriar: ibique locum accipiam sepulturć. Hćc mihi faciat Dominus, et hćc addat, si non sola mors me et te separaverit.
{1:17} Whichever land will receive you dying, in the same I will die, and there I will have the place of my burial. May God cause these things to happen to me, and add more also, if anything except death alone should separate you and I.”

~ Or, the place of my grave. The things that she asks God to cause to happen to her, if she lets anything separate her from her mother-in-law are not specified by the author of this book. In the actual conversation, Ruth would not literally have said “these things,” but would have indicated what sort of bad things should come upon her if she fails to do as she said. This telling of the story of Ruth by the author leaves out this detail of the conversation.

{1:18} Videns ergo Noemi, quod obstinato animo Ruth decrevisset secum pergere, adversari noluit, nec ad suos ultra reditum persuadere:
{1:18} Therefore, Naomi saw that Ruth, being firmly resolved in her soul, was determined to go with her, and that she was unwilling to be dissuaded, and that nothing further could convince her to return to her own.

~ Or, being obstinate in soul.

{1:19} profectćque sunt simul, et venerunt in Bethlehem. Quibus urbem ingressis, velox apud cunctos fama percrebruit: dicebantque mulieres: Hćc est illa Noemi.
{1:19} And so they set out together, and they came to Bethlehem. When they had entered the city, the news quickly spread among them all. And the women said, “This is that Naomi.”

{1:20} Quibus ait: Ne vocetis me Noemi (id est, pulchram) sed vocate me Mara (id est, amaram) quia amaritudine valde replevit me Omnipotens.
{1:20} But she said to them, “Do not call me Naomi (that is, beautiful), but call me Mara (that is, bitter). For the Almighty has greatly filled me with bitterness.

~ The text in parentheses is probably not original to the Hebrew text, since the meaning of these Hebrew names would not need to be explained to those who could understand Hebrew.

{1:21} Egressa sum plena, et vacuam reduxit me Dominus. Cur ergo vocatis me Noemi, quam Dominus humiliavit, et afflixit Omnipotens?
{1:21} I went out full and the Lord led me back empty. So then, why call me Naomi, whom the Lord has humbled and the Almighty has afflicted?”

{1:22} Venit ergo Noemi cum Ruth Moabitide nuru sua, de terra peregrinationis suć: ac reversa est in Bethlehem, quando primum hordea metebantur.
{1:22} Therefore, Naomi went with Ruth, the Moabite, her daughter-in-law, from the land of her sojourn, and returned to Bethlehem, at the time of the first reaping of the barley.

~ The barley is reaped in the springtime in Israel. Planting must occur in the autumn, because the only appreciable rainfall occurs in winter.

[Liber Ruth 2]
[The Book of Ruth 2]

{2:1} Erat autem viro Elimelech consanguineus, homo potens, et magnarum opum, nomine Booz.
{2:1} But there was a man related to Elimelech, a powerful man, and very wealthy, named Boaz.

{2:2} Dixitque Ruth Moabitis ad socrum suam: Si iubes, vadam in agrum, et colligam spicas quć fugerint manus metentium, ubicumque clementis in me patris familias reperero gratiam. Cui illa respondit: Vade filia mea.
{2:2} And Ruth, the Moabite, said to her mother-in-law, “If you order, I will go into the field and gather the ears of grain which escape the reaping hand, wherever I will find favor with the father of a family, who will be compassionate to me.” She answered her, “Go, my daughter.”

~ Naomi and Ruth had no husbands, no work (at first), and so they were in fairly dire straits. Their closest relative in the area was Boaz, someone they did not know well.

{2:3} Abiit itaque et colligebat spicas post terga metentium. Accidit autem ut ager ille haberet dominum nomine Booz, qui erat de cognatione Elimelech.
{2:3} And so she went and gathered the ears of grain after the completion of the reaping. But it happened that this field was owned by Boaz, who was of the kindred of Elimelech.

{2:4} Et ecce, ipse veniebat de Bethlehem, dixitque messoribus: Dominus vobiscum. Qui responderunt ei: Benedicat tibi Dominus.
{2:4} And behold, he came out of Bethlehem and said to the reapers, “The Lord be with you.” They answered him, “May the Lord bless you.”

{2:5} Dixitque Booz iuveni, qui messoribus prćerat: Cuius est hćc puella?
{2:5} And Boaz said to the young man who was in charge of the reapers, “Whose young woman is this?”

~ The word puella means young woman, but there is also a connotation of servitude.

{2:6} Cui respondit: Hćc est Moabitis, quć venit cum Noemi, de regione Moabitide,
{2:6} He answered him, “This is the Moabite woman, who came with Naomi, from the land of the Moabites,

{2:7} et rogavit ut spicas colligeret remanentes, sequens messorum vestigia: et de mane usque nunc stat in agro, et ne ad momentum quidem domum reversa est.
{2:7} and she asked to gather the remnants of the ears of grain, following the steps of the reapers, and from morning until now she has remained in the field, and, indeed, not for one moment has she returned home.”

{2:8} Et ait Booz ad Ruth: Audi filia, ne vadas in alterum agrum ad colligendum, nec recedas ab hoc loco: sed iungere puellis meis,
{2:8} And Boaz said to Ruth, “Listen to me, daughter. Do not go to gather in any other field, nor depart from this place, but join with my young women,

{2:9} et ubi messuerint, sequere. Mandavi enim pueris meis, ut nemo molestus sit tibi: sed etiam si sitieris, vade ad sarcinulas, et bibe aquas, de quibus et pueri bibunt.
{2:9} and follow where they reap. For I have given orders to my young men, so that no one is to harass you. And so, whenever you are thirsty, go to the vessels, and drink from the waters that the young men also drink.”

~ The word molestus means to trouble or to annoy, but there is also clearly a sexual implication, so the word could be translated as molest. But Boaz tells the young men not to harass her, or not to flirt with her. Certainly, Boaz, being a devout Jew, would not have permitted any of his workers to have sexual relations outside of marriage.

{2:10} Quć cadens in faciem suam et adorans super terram, dixit ad eum: Unde mihi hoc, ut invenirem gratiam ante oculos tuos, et nosse me dignareris peregrinam mulierem?
{2:10} She, falling on her face and paying homage on the ground, said to him: “How did this happen to me, that I should find favor before your eyes, and that you would condescend to accept me, a foreign woman?”

{2:11} Cui ille respondit: Nunciata sunt mihi omnia, quć feceris socrui tuć post mortem viri tui: et quod reliqueris parentes tuos, et terram in qua nata es, et veneris ad populum, quem antea nesciebas.
{2:11} He answered her, “Everything has been reported to me, what things you have done for your mother-in-law after the death of your husband, and how you left your parents, and the land in which you were born, and came to a people you did not know before.

{2:12} Reddat tibi Dominus pro opere tuo, et plenam mercedem recipias a Domino Deo Israel, ad quem venisti, et sub cuius confugisti alas.
{2:12} May the Lord repay you for your work, and may you receive a full reward from the Lord, the God of Israel, to whom you have come, and under whose wings you have taken refuge.”

{2:13} Quć ait: Inveni gratiam apud oculos tuos domine mi, qui consolatus es me, et locutus es ad cor ancillć tuć, quć non sum similis unius puellarum tuarum.
{2:13} She said, “I have found favor before your eyes, my lord, who has consoled me, and you have spoken to the heart of your handmaid, who is unlike one of your young women.”

~ The words ancillae and puellarum both refer to young women and both connote a role of some servitude, but ancillae has comparatively the greater degree of servitude.

{2:14} Dixitque ad eam Booz: Quando hora vescendi fuerit, veni huc, et comede panem, et intinge buccellam tuam in aceto. Sedit itaque ad messorum latus, et congessit polentam sibi, comeditque et saturata est, et tulit reliquias.
{2:14} And Boaz said to her, “When mealtime begins, come here, and eat bread, and dip your morsel in the vinegar.” And so she sat beside the reapers, and she piled up parched grain for herself, and she ate and was satisfied, and carried off the leftovers.

{2:15} Atque inde surrexit, ut spicas ex more colligeret. Prćcepit autem Booz pueris suis, dicens: Etiamsi vobiscum metere voluerit, ne prohibeatis eam:
{2:15} And then she arose from there, so as to gather the ears of grain, according to the custom. But Boaz commanded his servants, saying, “If she is even willing to reap with you, do not prevent her,

{2:16} et de vestris quoque manipulis proiicite de industria, et remanere permittite, ut absque rubore colligat, et colligentem nemo corripiat.
{2:16} and purposely let fall some from your bundles, and allow them to remain, so that she may gather without blushing, and let no one rebuke her gathering.”

{2:17} Collegit ergo in agro usque ad vesperam: et quć collegerat virga cćdens et excutiens, invenit hordei quasi ephi mensuram, id est, tres modios.
{2:17} And so she gathered in the field until evening. And striking and threshing with a staff what she had gathered, she found about the measure of an ephah of barley, that is, three measures.

~ An ephah is a dry unit of measure approximately equal to three pecks or six gallons. A “measure” in ancient Rome was approximately equivalent to one peck or two gallons. Here again the text beginning with “that is” was probably added at a later date, for those who do not know the Hebrew language.

{2:18} Quos portans reversa est in civitatem, et ostendit socrui suć: insuper protulit, et dedit ei de reliquiis cibi sui, quo saturata fuerat.
{2:18} Carrying this, she returned into the city and showed it to her mother-in-law. Moreover, she offered it to her and even gave her the leftovers of her food, with which she had been satisfied.

{2:19} Dixitque ei socrus sua: Ubi hodie collegisti, et ubi fecisti opus? sit benedictus qui misertus est tui. Indicavitque ei apud quem fuisset operata: et nomen dixit viri, quod Booz vocaretur.
{2:19} And her mother-in-law said to her, “Where have you gathered today, and where have you found work? Blessed is he who took pity on you!” And she informed her with whom she had been working, and she said the man’s name, that he was called Boaz.

{2:20} Cui respondit Noemi: Benedictus sit a Domino: quoniam eandem gratiam, quam prćbuerat vivis, servavit et mortuis. Rursumque ait: Propinquus noster est homo.
{2:20} Naomi answered her, “May he be blessed by the Lord, because the same kindness which he provided for the living, he also kept for the dead.” And again she said: “This man is our near relative.”

~ In previous verses, other terms were used to indicate a relative, but here the word propinquus is used to indicate a particular type of relative, one who is near of kin, or next of kin. The significance is that Naomi and Ruth were hoping that their nearest male relative would give them assistance, and they also hoped that, if he were unmarried, he would fulfill an obligation under Jewish law and custom to take Ruth as his wife. Since Ruth was a foreigner, not of Jewish descent, this obligation would have been somewhat in doubt. Therefore, Naomi and Ruth do not approach him in an open and forthright manner.

{2:21} Et Ruth, Hoc quoque, inquit, prćcepit mihi, ut tamdiu messoribus eius iungerer, donec omnes segetes meterentur.
{2:21} And Ruth said, “He charged me with this also, that from now on I should join with his reapers until all the crop has been reaped.”

{2:22} Cui dixit socrus: Melius est, filia mea, ut cum puellis eius exeas ad metendum, ne in alieno agro quispiam resistat tibi.
{2:22} And her mother-in-law said to her, “It is better, my daughter, to go out reaping with his young women, lest in a stranger’s field someone may confront you.”

~ In a stranger’s field, someone might object to Ruth because she is a foreigner, or they might assault her.

{2:23} Iuncta est itaque puellis Booz: et tamdiu cum eis messuit, donec hordea et triticum in horreis conderentur.
{2:23} And so, she joined with the young women of Boaz, and from then on reaped with them, until the barley and the wheat were stored in the barns.

~ This time period would be at least several weeks, since their were two crops to harvest and the work was done by hand. The harvest in Israel is completed in the time between Passover and the Feast of Weeks.

[Liber Ruth 3]
[The Book of Ruth 3]

{3:1} Postquam autem reversa est ad socrum suam, audivit ab ea: Filia mea, qućram tibi requiem, et providebo ut bene sit tibi.
{3:1} But afterwards, when she returned to her mother-in-law, Naomi said to her: “My daughter, I will seek rest for you, and I will provide so that it may be well with you.

{3:2} Booz iste, cuius puellis in agro iuncta es, propinquus noster est, et hac nocte aream hordei ventilat.
{3:2} This Boaz, whose young women you joined in the field, is our near relative, and this night he will winnow the threshing floor of barley.

{3:3} Lavare igitur, et undere, et induere cultioribus vestimentis, et descende in aream. Non te videat homo, donec esum potumque finierit.
{3:3} Therefore, wash and anoint yourself, and put on your decorative garments, and go down to the threshing floor, but do not let the man see you, while he finishes eating and drinking.

{3:4} Quando autem ierit ad dormiendum, nota locum in quo dormiat: veniesque et discooperies pallium, quo operitur a parte pedum, et proiicies te, et ibi iacebis: ipse autem dicet tibi quid agere debeas.
{3:4} But when he goes to sleep, observe the place where he sleeps. And you will approach and lift up the covering, the part which covers near his feet, and lay yourself down, and sleep there; but he will tell you what you are obliged to do.”

~ Naomi’s plan is not to approach Boaz openly to see if he would take Ruth as his wife, for Ruth was a foreigner. Also, Naomi had been away for many years so that she did not have a secure place in the social structure of the town. She and Ruth were treated somewhat as outsiders. And the women said, “This is that Naomi.” On the other hand, Naomi is not suggesting that Ruth approach Boaz for sexual relations. Rather, she suggests that Ruth approach Boaz when they can be alone, to see if he is interested in her and to let her know that she is interested in him. Naomi’s plan is somewhat inappropriate, yet God uses her flawed plan within His perfect Plan.

{3:5} Quć respondit: Quidquid prćceperis, faciam.
{3:5} She answered, “I will do everything as you have instructed.”

{3:6} Descenditque in aream, et fecit omnia, quć sibi imperaverat socrus.
{3:6} And she went down to the threshing floor, and she did everything that her mother-in-law had commanded her.

{3:7} Cumque comedisset Booz, et bibisset, et factus esset hilarior, issetque ad dormiendum iuxta acervum manipulorum, venit abscondite, et discooperto pallio a pedibus eius, se proiecit.
{3:7} And when Boaz had finished eating and drinking, and he was merry, and he had gone to sleep by the pile of sheaves, she approached secretly, and, lifting the covering near his feet, she laid herself down.

{3:8} Et ecce, nocte iam media expavit homo, et conturbatus est: viditque mulierem iacentem ad pedes suos,
{3:8} And behold, when it was the middle of the night, the man became frightened and confused, and he saw a woman lying near his feet.

{3:9} et ait illi: Quć es? Illaque respondit: Ego sum Ruth ancilla tua: expande pallium tuum super famulam tuam, quia propinquus es.
{3:9} And he said to her, “Who are you?” And she answered, “I am Ruth, your handmaid. Spread your covering over your servant, for you are a near relative.”

{3:10} Et ille, Benedicta, inquit, es a Domino filia, et priorem misericordiam posteriore superasti: quia non est secuta iuvenes pauperes, sive divites.
{3:10} And he said, “You are blessed by the Lord, daughter, and you have excelled beyond your earlier benevolence, because you have not followed young men, whether poor or rich.

{3:11} Noli ergo metuere, sed quidquid dixeris mihi, faciam tibi. Scit enim omnis populus, qui habitat intra portas urbis meć, mulierem te esse virtutis.
{3:11} Therefore, do not be afraid, but whatever you decide about me, I will accomplish for you. For all the people, who dwell within the gates of my city, know that you are a virtuous woman.

{3:12} Nec abnuo me propinquum, sed est alius me propinquior.
{3:12} Neither do I deny myself to be a near relative, but there is another nearer than I.

{3:13} Quiesce hac nocte: et facto mane, si te voluerit propinquitatis iure retinere, bene res acta est: sin autem ille noluerit, ego te absque ulla dubitatione suscipiam, vivit Dominus. Dormi usque mane.
{3:13} Be at peace for this night. And when morning arrives, if he is willing to uphold the law of kinship for you, things will turn out well; but if he is not willing, then, I will take you, without any doubt, as the Lord lives. Sleep until morning.”

{3:14} Dormivit itaque ad pedes eius, usque ad noctis abscessum. Surrexit itaque antequam homines se cognoscerent mutuo, et dixit Booz: Cave ne quis noverit quod huc veneris.
{3:14} And so she slept by his feet until the night was ending. And she arose before men could inquire of one another. And Boaz said, “Be careful, lest someone know that you came here.”

~ She arose before the other men would notice her presence and begin to ask questions and draw incorrect conclusions. Boaz did not want to cause a scandal.

{3:15} Et rursum, Expande, inquit, pallium tuum, quo operiris, et tene utraque manu. Qua extendente, et tenente, mensus est sex modios hordei, et posuit super eam. Quć portans ingressa est civitatem,
{3:15} And again he said, “Spread your mantle that covers you, and hold it with both hands.” As she extended it and held it, he measured six measures of barley and placed it upon her. Carrying it, she went into the city.

~ The original text probably said “two ephahs” rather than six measures. One ephah equals approximately three measures. Ephah is the Hebrew unit of measure and “measure” is the Roman unit.

{3:16} et venit ad socrum suam. Quć dixit ei: Quid egisti filia? Narravitque ei omnia, quć sibi fecisset homo.
{3:16} And she came to her mother-in-law, who said to her: “What have you been doing, daughter?” And she explained to her all that the man had accomplished for her.

{3:17} Et ait: Ecce sex modios hordei dedit mihi, et ait: Nolo vacuam te reverti ad socrum tuam.
{3:17} And she said, “Behold, he gave me six measures of barley, for he said, ‘I am not willing to have you return empty to your mother-in-law.’ ”

{3:18} Dixitque Noemi: Expecta filia donec videamus quem res exitum habeat. Neque enim cessabit homo nisi compleverit quod locutus est.
{3:18} And Naomi said, “Wait, daughter, until we see how things will turn out. For the man will not rest until he has accomplished what he said.”

[Liber Ruth 4]
[The Book of Ruth 4]

{4:1} Ascendit ergo Booz ad portam, et sedit ibi. Cumque vidisset propinquum prćterire, de quo prius sermo habitus est, dixit ad eum: Declina paulisper, et sede hic: vocans eum nomine suo. Qui divertit, et sedit.
{4:1} Then Boaz went up to the gate, and he sat there. And when he had seen the kinsman passing by, whom he had previously discussed, he spoke to him, calling him by his name, “Pause for a little while, and sit down here.” He turned aside and sat down.

{4:2} Tollens autem Booz decem viros de senioribus civitatis, dixit ad eos: Sedete hic.
{4:2} But Boaz, calling aside ten men among the elders of the city, said to them, “Sit down here.”

~ Boaz’s word carries weight with the people of this city, even the elders.

{4:3} Quibus sedentibus, locutus est ad propinquum: Partem agri fratris nostri Elimelech vendet Noemi, quć reversa est de regione Moabitide:
{4:3} They settled down, and he spoke to the kinsman, “Naomi, who has returned from the region of the Moabites, is selling part of a field of our brother Elimelech.

{4:4} quod audire te volui, et tibi dicere coram cunctis sedentibus, et maioribus natu de populo meo. Si vis possidere iure propinquitatis: eme, et posside. Sin autem displicet tibi, hoc ipsum indica mihi, ut sciam quid facere debeam. Nullus enim est propinquus, excepto te, qui prior es: et me, qui secundus sum. At ille respondit: Ego agrum emam.
{4:4} I wanted you to hear this, and to tell you in front of everyone sitting here, including the eldest of my people. If you will take possession of it by the right of kinship, buy it and possess it. But if it displeases you, you should reveal this to me, so that I will know what I have to do. For there is no near kinsman besides you, who is before me, and I am after you.” But he answered, “I will buy the field.”

{4:5} Cui dixit Booz: Quando emeris agrum de manu mulieris, Ruth quoque Moabitidem, quć uxor defuncti fuit, debes accipere: ut suscites nomen propinqui tui in hereditate sua.
{4:5} And Boaz said to him, “When buying the field, you are likewise obliged to accept the hand of the woman Ruth, the Moabite, who was the wife of the deceased, so that you may raise up the name of your near kinsman through his posterity.”

{4:6} Qui respondit: Cedo iuri propinquitatis: neque enim posteritatem familić meć delere debeo. Tu meo utere privilegio, quo me libenter carere profiteor.
{4:6} He answered, “I yield my right of kinship, for I am obliged not to cut off the posterity of my own family. You may make use of my privilege, which I freely declare I will forego.”

{4:7} Hic autem erat mos antiquitus in Israel inter propinquos, ut si quando alter alteri suo iuri cedebat: ut esset firma concessio, solvebat homo calceamentum suum, et dabat proximo suo. Hoc erat testmonium cessionis in Israel.
{4:7} Yet it was the custom between kinsmen in this former time in Israel, that if at any time one yielded his right to another, so as to confirm his permission, the man took off his shoe and gave it to his neighbor. This was a testimony of concession in Israel.

~ This last sentence of explanation is needed either to explain, to the Jews of one time period, a practice no longer used in Israel, or to explain to the non-Hebrew the custom of the Jews. This text may have been a later addition to the book.

{4:8} Dixit ergo propinquo suo Booz: Tolle calceamentum tuum. Quod statim solvit de pede suo.
{4:8} And so Boaz said to his kinsman, “Take off your shoe.” And immediately he released it from his foot.

{4:9} At ille maioribus natu, et universo populo, Testes vos, inquit, estis hodie, quod possederim omnis quć fuerunt Elimelech; et Chelion, et Mahalon, tradente Noemi:
{4:9} And he said to the eldest and to all the people, “You are witnesses this day, that I have taken possession of all that belonged to Elimelech and Chilion and Mahlon, and was bequeathed to Naomi.

{4:10} et Ruth Moabitidem, uxorem Mahalon, in coniugium sumpserim, ut suscitem nomen defuncti in hereditate sua, ne vocabulum eius de familia sua ac fratribus et populo deleatur. Vos, inquam, huius rei testes estis.
{4:10} And Ruth, the Moabite, the wife of Mahlon, I have taken in marriage so as to raise up the name of the deceased in his posterity, so that his name will not be cut off from among his family and his brethren and his people. You, I say, are witnesses of this thing.”

{4:11} Respondit omnis populus, qui erat in porta, et maiores natu: Nos testes sumus: faciat Dominus hanc mulierem, quć ingreditur domum tuam, sicut Rachel, et Liam, quć ćdificaverunt domum Israel: ut sit exemplum virtutis in Ephratha, et habeat celebre nomen in Bethlehem:
{4:11} All the people who were at the gate, along with the eldest, answered, “We are witnesses. May the Lord make this woman, who enters into your house, like Rachel, and Leah, who built up the house of Israel, so that she may be an example of virtue in Ephrathah, and so that her name may be honored in Bethlehem.

{4:12} fiatque domus tua, sicut domus Phares, quem Thamar peperit Iudć, de semine quod tibi dederit Dominus ex hac puella.
{4:12} And may your house be like the house of Perez, whom Tamar bore to Judah, of the offspring which the Lord will give to you from this young woman.”

{4:13} Tulit itaque Booz Ruth, et accepit uxorem: ingressusque est ad eam, et dedit illi Dominus ut conciperet, et pareret filium.
{4:13} And so Boaz took Ruth, and received her as his wife, and he went in to her, and the Lord granted to her to conceive and bear a son.

{4:14} Dixeruntque mulieres ad Noemi: Benedictus Dominus, qui non est passus ut deficeret successor familić tuć, et vocaretur nomen eius in Israel.
{4:14} And the women said to Naomi, “Blessed be the Lord, who has not permitted your family to be without a successor, and may his name be called upon in Israel.

~ These are the women contemporaneous with Ruth. They formerly treated her as an outsider, but now they accept her as one of their own.

{4:15} Et habeas qui consoletur animam tuam, et enutriat senectutem. De nuru enim tua natus est, quć te diligit: et multo tibi melior est, quam si septem haberes filios.
{4:15} And now you may have someone to comfort your soul and to care for you in old age, for he is born of your daughter-in-law, who loves you, and this is much better for you, than if you had seven sons.”

{4:16} Susceptumque Noemi puerum posuit in sinu suo, et nutricis ac gerulć fungebatur officio.
{4:16} And taking up the boy, Naomi placed him on her bosom, and she took on the duties of carrying him and nursing him.

~ Naomi was not very old, despite her protests in Ruth 1:12, for she was still able to nurse this child. The word nutricis has a meaning more like nursing a child, and less like nursing a patient.

{4:17} Vicinć autem mulieris congratulantes ei, et dicentes: Natus est filius Noemi: vocaverunt nomen eius Obed: hic est pater Isai, patris David.
{4:17} And the women of the near future were congratulating her and saying, “There was a son born to Naomi. They called his name Obed. Here is the father of Jesse, the father of David.”

~ The word vicinae means nearby and usually means nearby in place. However, in this context, the women nearby in place could not have known that Obed would grow up to be the father of Jesse, and he the father of David. Thus, the meaning is nearby in time, that is, the women of the near future.

{4:18} Hć sunt generationes Phares: Phares genuit Esron,
{4:18} These are the generations of Perez: Perez conceived Hezron,

{4:19} Esron genuit Aram, Aram genuit Aminadab,
{4:19} Hezron conceived Aram, Aram conceived Amminadab,

{4:20} Aminadab genuit Nahasson, Nahasson genuit Salmon,
{4:20} Amminadab conceived Nahshon, Nahshon conceived Salmon,

{4:21} Salmon genuit Booz, Booz genuit Obed,
{4:21} Salmon conceived Boaz, Boaz conceived Obed,

{4:22} Obed genuit Isai, Isai genuit David.
{4:22} Obed conceived Jesse, Jesse conceived David.

The Sacred BibleThe Book of Ruth