The Sacred BibleThe Prophecy of Hosea
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
[Osee 1]
[Hosea 1]

{1:1} Verbum Domini, quod factum est ad Osee filium Beeri, in diebus Oziæ, Ioathan, Achaz, Ezechiæ regum Iuda, et in diebus Ieroboam filii Ioas regis Israel.
{1:1} The word of the Lord that came to Hosea the son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam, the son of Joash, king of Israel.

~ The verb ‘factum est’ could be translated as ‘has been made’ or ‘has been done’ or ‘has happened to,’ or ‘has been given to,’ but the more common translation is ‘came to.’ The phrase could be rendered: ‘The Word of the Lord that happened to Hosea.’

{1:2} Principium loquendi Domino in Osee: et dixit Dominus ad Osee: Vade, sume tibi uxorem fornicationum, et fac tibi filios fornicationum: quia fornicans fornicabitur terra a Domino.
{1:2} The beginning of the Lord’s conversation with Hosea. And the Lord said to Hosea: “Go, take to yourself a wife of fornications, and make for yourself sons of fornications, because, by fornicating, the land will fornicate away from the Lord.”

{1:3} Et abiit, et accepit Gomer filiam Debelaim: et concepit, et peperit ei filium.
{1:3} And he went out and took Gomer the daughter of Diblaim; and she conceived and bore him a son.

{1:4} Et dixit Dominus ad eum: Voca nomen eius Iezrahel: quoniam adhuc modicum, et visitabo sanguinem Iezrahel super domum Iehu, et quiescere faciam regnum domus Israel.
{1:4} And the Lord said to him: “Call his name Jezreel because, after a little while, I will visit the blood of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, and I will put the kingdom of the house of Israel to rest.

{1:5} Et in illa die conteram arcum Israel in valle Iezrahel.
{1:5} And in that day, I will crush the stronghold of Israel in the valley of Jezreel.”

~ The word ‘arcum’ can refer to a bow (a weapon used in battle) or to a citadel or stronghold. In this case, the nation of Israel could be said to have a metaphorical bow (strength in battle), but the translation of ‘stronghold’ is more fitting when the possessor of the ‘arcum’ is a nation, not an individual.

{1:6} Et concepit adhuc, et peperit filiam. Et dixit ei: Voca nomen eius Absque Misericordia: quia non addam ultra misereri domui Israel, sed oblivione obliviscar eorum.
{1:6} And after a while, she conceived and bore a daughter. And he said to him: “Call her name, Without Mercy, for I will no longer have mercy on the house of Israel, but I will utterly forget them.

{1:7} Et domui Iuda miserebor, et salvabo eos in Domino Deo suo: et non salvabo eos in arcu, et gladio, et in bello, et in equis, et in equitibus.
{1:7} Yet I will have mercy on the house of Judah, and I will save them by the Lord their God. And I will not save them by bow and sword and battle and horses and horsemen.”

{1:8} Et ablactavit eam, quæ erat Absque Misericordia. Et concepit, et peperit filium.
{1:8} And she weaned her, who was called Without Mercy. And she conceived and bore a son.

{1:9} Et dixit: Voca nomen eius: Non Populus Meus: quia vos non populus meus, et ego non ero vester.
{1:9} And he said: “Call his name, Not My People, for you are not my people, and I will not be yours.

{1:10} Et erit numerus filiorum Israel quasi arena maris, quæ sine mensura est, et non numerabitur. Et erit in loco ubi dicetur eis: Non populus meus vos: dicetur eis: Filii Dei viventis.
{1:10} And the number of the sons of Israel will be like the sand of the sea, which is without measure and cannot be numbered. And in the place where it will be said to them, ‘You are not my people,’ this will happen: it will be said to them, ‘You are the sons of the living God.’

{1:11} Et congregabuntur filii Iuda, et filii Israel pariter: et ponent sibimet caput unum, et ascendent de terra: quia magnus dies Iezrahel.
{1:11} And the sons of Judah, and the sons of Israel, will be gathered together. And they will place over themselves one head, and they will rise up from the earth, for great is the day of Jezreel.”

~ The one head placed over Israel and Judah refers to one Pope set over all Christians. This verse refers to the future unification of all Christians in one Catholic Church. The phrase ‘ponet sibi met’ can also be translated as ‘appoint to harvest (or to reap) themselves,’ or, perhaps, ‘appoint to measure (i.e. govern and judge) themselves.’

[Osee 2]
[Hosea 2]

{2:1} Dicite fratribus vestris: Populus meus: et sorori vestræ, Misericordiam consecuta.
{2:1} “Say to your brothers, ‘You are my people,’ and to your sister, ‘You have obtained mercy.’

~ Or, ‘you have caught up with mercy,’ or, ‘you have overtaken mercy.’

{2:2} Iudicate matrem vestram, iudicate: quoniam ipsa non uxor mea, et ego non vir eius. Auferat fornicationes suas a facie sua, et adulteria sua de medio uberum suorum.
{2:2} Judge your mother, judge: for she is not my wife, and I am not her husband. Let her remove her fornications from before her face and her adulteries from between her breasts.

{2:3} Ne forte expoliem eam nudam, et statuam eam secundum diem nativitatis suæ: et ponam eam quasi solitudinem, et statuam eam velut terram inviam, et interficiam eam siti.
{2:3} Otherwise, I may expose her nakedness and set her as on the day of her birth, and I may establish her as a wilderness and set her as an impassable land, and I may execute her with thirst.

{2:4} Et filiorum illius non miserebor: quoniam filii fornicationum sunt.
{2:4} And I will not have mercy on her sons, for they are the sons of fornications.

{2:5} Quia fornicata est mater eorum, confusa est quæ concepit eos: quia dixit: Vadam post amatores meos, qui dant panes mihi, et aquas meas, lanam meam, et linum meum, oleum meum, et potum meum.
{2:5} For their mother has been fornicating; she who conceived them has been brought to ruin. For she said, ‘I will go after my lovers, who give me my bread and my water, my wool and my flax, my oil and my drink.’

{2:6} Propter hoc, ecce, ego sepiam viam tuam spinis, et sepiam eam maceria, et semitas suas non inveniet.
{2:6} Because of this, behold, I will fence in your way with thorns, and I will surround it with a wall, and she will not find her paths.

{2:7} Et sequetur amatores suos, et non apprehendet eos: et quæret eos, et non inveniet, et dicet: Vadam, et revertar ad virum meum priorem: quia bene mihi erat tunc magis quam nunc.
{2:7} And she will pursue her lovers, but she will not obtain them, and she will seek them, but she will not find them, and she will say, ‘I will go and return to my first husband, because it was to some extent better for me then, than it is now.’

{2:8} Et hæc nescivit, quia ego dedi ei frumentum, et vinum, et oleum, et argentum multiplicavi ei, et aurum, quæ fecerunt Baal.
{2:8} And she did not know that I gave her grain and wine and oil, and that I increased her silver and gold, which they made into Baal.

~ They made silver and gold into a false god (Baal).

{2:9} Idcirco convertar, et sumam frumentum meum in tempore suo, et vinum meum in tempore suo, et liberabo lanam meam et linum meum, quæ operiebant ignominiam eius.
{2:9} For this reason, I will turn back, and I will take away my grain in its time and my wine in its time, and I will set free my wool and my flax, which had covered her disgrace.

{2:10} Et nunc revelabo stultitiam eius in oculis amatorum eius: et vir non eruet eam de manu mea:
{2:10} And now, I will reveal her foolishness by the eyes of her lovers, and no man will rescue her from my hand.

{2:11} et cessare faciam omne gaudium eius, sollemnitatem eius, neomeniam eius, sabbatum eius, et omnia festa tempora eius.
{2:11} And I will cause all her joy to cease: her solemnities, her new moons, her Sabbaths, and all her feast dates.

{2:12} Et corrumpam vineam eius, et ficum eius: de quibus dixit: Mercedes hæ, meæ sunt, quas dederunt mihi amatores mei: et ponam eam in saltum, et comedet eam bestia agri.
{2:12} And I will corrupt her vines and her fig trees, about which she said, ‘These rewards, they are mine, my lovers have given them to me.’ And I will place her in a narrow forest, and the beasts of the field will devour her.

{2:13} Et visitabo super eam dies Baalim, quibus accendebat incensum, et ornabatur inaure sua, et monili suo, et ibat post amatores suos, et mei obliviscebatur, dicit Dominus.
{2:13} And I will inflict on her the days of the Baals, for whom she burned incense, and ornamented herself with earrings and necklace, and went after her lovers, and forgot about me,” says the Lord.

{2:14} Propter hoc, ecce, ego lactabo eam, et ducam eam in solitudinem: et loquar ad cor eius.
{2:14} “Because of this, behold, I will attract her, and I will lead her into the wilderness, and I will speak to her heart.

~ Or, ‘lead her into solitude.’

{2:15} Et dabo ei vinitores eius ex eodem loco, et Vallem Achor ad aperiendam spem: et canet ibi iuxta dies iuventutis suæ, et iuxta dies ascensionis suæ de Terra Ægypti.
{2:15} And I will give to her, from the same place, her vinedressers, and the valley of Achor as a passage of hope. And she will sing there as in the days of her youth, and as in the days of her ascension from the land of Egypt.

{2:16} Et erit in die illa, ait Dominus: vocabit me: Vir meus: et non vocabit me ultra, Baali.
{2:16} And it will be in that day,” says the Lord, “that she will call me, ‘My Husband,’ and she will no longer call me, ‘My Baal.’

~ In Hebrew, ‘i’ at the end of a word can signify ‘my,’ as in ‘Eli, Eli,’ (my God, my God). Therefore, the translation is ‘My Baal.’

{2:17} Et auferam nomina Baalim de ore eius, et non recordabitur ultra nominis eorum.
{2:17} And I will remove the names of the Baals from her mouth, and she will no longer remember their name.

{2:18} Et percutiam cum eis fœdus in die illa, cum bestia agri, et cum volucre cæli, et cum reptili terræ: et arcum, et gladium, et bellum conteram de terra: et dormire eos faciam fiducialiter.
{2:18} And in that day, I will strike a deal with them, with the beasts of the field, and with the birds of the sky, and with the creatures of the earth. And I will crush the bow and the sword, and I will wipe away war from the earth. And I will let them sleep securely.

~ The phrase ‘in that day’ can also be translated as ‘on that day.’ The phrase can refer to one particular day, or to a general period of time (using the word ‘day’ metaphorically).

~ Also, the word ‘conteram’ occurs only once in this verse, but in translation it is repeated using two different English verbs: ‘to crush’ bows and swords, and ‘to wipe away’ war from the earth. The different context of destroying weapons and removing war itself calls for different English words to translate the same Latin verb.

{2:19} Et sponsabo te mihi in sempiternum: et sponsabo te mihi in iustitia, et iudicio, et in misericordia, et in miserationibus.
{2:19} And I will betroth you to me forever, and I will betroth you to me in justice and judgment, and in mercy and compassion.

{2:20} Et sponsabo te mihi in fide: et scies quia ego Dominus.
{2:20} And I will wed you to me in faith, and you will know that I am the Lord.

{2:21} Et erit in die illa: Exaudiam, dicit Dominus, exaudiam cælos, et illi exaudient terram.
{2:21} And this will happen in that day: I will listen closely,” says the Lord. “I will hear the heavens, and they will hear the earth.

{2:22} Et terra exaudiet triticum, et vinum, et oleum: et hæc exaudient Iezrahel.
{2:22} And the land will pay attention to the grain, and the wine, and the oil; and these will hear Jezreel.

{2:23} Et seminabo eam mihi in terra, et miserebor eius, quæ fuit Absque Misericordia.
{2:23} And I will plant her for me in the land, and I will have mercy on her, though she had been called Without Mercy.

{2:24} Et dicam Non Populo Meo: Populus meus es tu: et ipse dicet: Deus meus es tu.
{2:24} And I will say to Not My People, ‘You are my people,’ and they will say, ‘You are my God.’ ”

[Osee 3]
[Hosea 3]

{3:1} Et dixit Dominus ad me: Adhuc vade, et dilige mulierem dilectam amico et adulteram: sicut diligit Dominus filios Israel, et ipsi respiciunt ad deos alienos, et diligunt vinacia uvarum.
{3:1} And the Lord said to me: “Go yet again, and love a woman, beloved by a friend, yet an adulteress, for so does the Lord love the sons of Israel, yet they look to strange gods, and love the seeds of grapes.”

~ The phrase ‘mulierem dilectam amico et adulteram’ implies that this woman has committed adultery with the husband of a woman who is her close friend.

~ The ‘seeds of grapes’ (the skins and seeds of grapes left over from wine-making) can be used to make a hard liquor drink (grappa).

{3:2} Et fodi eam mihi quindecim argenteis, et coro hordei, et dimidio coro hordei.
{3:2} And I contracted her to me for fifteen silver coins, and for a basket of barley, and half a basket of barley.

~ The word ‘coro’ is obscure, but probably has a similar meaning to ‘corbis,’ meaning ‘a basketful,’ or ‘a quantity of’ something.

{3:3} Et dixi ad eam: Dies multos expectabis me: non fornicaberis, et non eris viro: sed et ego expectabo te.
{3:3} And I said to her, “You will wait for me for many days. You will not commit fornication, and you will not be with a man. But I also will wait for you.”

~ I am not always sure where to begin and end the quotation marks. Latin has no quotation marks and various English translations differ in their use of quotes.

{3:4} Quia dies multos sedebunt filii Israel sine rege, et sine principe, et sine sacrificio, et sine altari, et sine ephod, et sine theraphim.
{3:4} For the sons of Israel will sit for many days without a king, and without a leader, and without sacrifice, and without altar, and without priestly vestments, and without religious symbols.

~ This verse predicts a time when the Church will be without a Pope, and without many Bishops, and without many Masses, and without many altars, and the priests will not be able to dress as priests, and there will not be many crosses, crucifixes, religious statues, and other religious images and symbols.

~ The word ‘theraphim’ can refer to idols or idolatrous images, but it can also, in another context, refer to holy images and statues referring to the one true God. In the Christian faith, this includes crosses, crucifixes, the stations of the Cross, as well as statues of Mary and the Saints, and other blessed objects.

{3:5} Et post hæc revertentur filii Israel, et quærent Dominum Deum suum, et David regem suum: et pavebunt ad Dominum, et ad bonum eius in novissimo dierum.
{3:5} And after this, the sons of Israel will return, and they will seek the Lord their God and David their king, and they will be terrified by the Lord and by his goodness, in the last days.

~ The phrase ‘David their king’ is a spiritual reference to the great monarch (who is like king David). The verse describes the time after the first part of the tribulation, that is, the time of peace beginning in A.D. 2040.

[Osee 4]
[Hosea 4]

{4:1} Audite verbum Domini filii Israel, quia iudicium Domino cum habitatoribus terræ: non est enim veritas, et non est misericordia, et non est scientia Dei in terra.
{4:1} Listen to the word of the Lord, sons of Israel, for the Lord is judge of the inhabitants of the land. Yet there is no truth, and there is no mercy, and there is no knowledge of God, in the land.

{4:2} Maledictum, et mendacium, et homicidium, et furtum, et adulterium inundaverunt, et sanguis sanguinem tetigit.
{4:2} Slander, and lying, and killing, and theft, and adultery have overflowed, and bloodshed has brought more bloodshed.

~ The last phrase is translated loosely, according to its meaning. A literal translation would be ‘blood has touched blood.’

{4:3} Propter hoc lugebit terra, et infirmabitur omnis, qui habitat in ea, in bestia agri, et in volucre cæli: sed et pisces maris congregabuntur.
{4:3} Because of this, the land will mourn, and all who dwell in it will languish, with the beasts of the field and the birds of the air. And the fishes of the sea also will be gathered together.

{4:4} Verumtamen unusquisque non iudicet: et non arguatur vir: populus enim tuus sicut hi, qui contradicunt sacerdoti.
{4:4} So, truly, let each and every one not judge, and let no man be accused, for your people are just like those who speak against the priesthood.

{4:5} Et corrues hodie, et corruet etiam propheta tecum: nocte tacere feci matrem tuam.
{4:5} And you will be ruined on this day, and now the prophet will be ruined with you. In the night, I have made your mother to be silent.

{4:6} Conticuit populus meus, eo quod non habuerit scientiam: quia tu scientiam repulisti, repellam te, ne sacerdotio fungaris mihi: et oblita es legis Dei tui, obliviscar filiorum tuorum et ego.
{4:6} My people have become silent because they had no knowledge. Since you have rejected knowledge, I will drive you away; you do not perform the duties of the priesthood for me, and you have forgotten the law of your God, and so I will forget your sons.

{4:7} Secundum multitudinem eorum sic peccaverunt mihi: gloriam eorum in ignominiam commutabo.
{4:7} According to the multitude of them, so have they sinned against me. I will change their glory into disgrace.

~ Or, more loosely, ‘As many as there are of them, that is how many have sinned against me....’
Or, ‘The more of them there are, the more they sin against me....’
Or, ‘As they increase in number, they increase in their sins against me....’
There is also an implicit sense in this verse that part of the reason for their sinfulness is the influence of the multitude, that is, of the majority. Living in a land where most people commit certain sins, makes it more likely that one will commit those sins.

{4:8} Peccata populi mei comedent, et ad iniquitatem eorum sublevabunt animas eorum.
{4:8} They will devour the sins of my people, and they will lift up their souls towards their iniquity.

{4:9} Et erit sicut populus, sic sacerdos: et visitabo super eum vias eius, et cogitationes eius reddam ei.
{4:9} And, just as it is with the people, so will it be with the priest; and I will visit their ways upon them, and I will repay them for their intentions.

{4:10} Et comedent, et non saturabuntur: fornicati sunt, et non cessaverunt: quoniam Dominum dereliquerunt in non custodiendo.
{4:10} And they will eat and not be satisfied. They have been committing fornication, and they did not cease. Since they have abandoned the Lord, they will not be safeguarded.

{4:11} Fornicatio, et vinum, et ebrietas auferunt cor.
{4:11} Fornication, and wine, and drunkenness, have taken away their heart.

{4:12} Populus meus in ligno suo interrogavit, et baculus eius annunciavit ei: spiritus enim fornicationum decepit eos, et fornicati sunt a Deo suo.
{4:12} My people have inquired of their stave, and their staff has announced to them. For the spirit of fornication has deceived them, and they have been fornicating before their God.

{4:13} Super capita montium sacrificabant, et super colles ascendebant thymiama: subtus quercum, et populum, et terebinthum, quia bona erat umbra eius: ideo fornicabuntur filiæ vestræ, et sponsæ vestræ adulteræ erunt.
{4:13} They have offered sacrifice on the tops of the mountains and burnt incense on the hills, under the oak, and the poplar, and the terebinth tree, because its shadow was good; therefore, your daughters will commit fornication and your spouses will be adulteresses.

{4:14} Non visitabo super filias vestras cum fuerint fornicatæ, et super sponsas vestras cum adulteraverint: quoniam ipsi cum meretricibus conversabantur, et cum effeminatis sacrificabant, et populus non intelligens vapulabit.
{4:14} I will not send afflictions on your daughters, when they will commit fornication, nor on your spouses, when they will commit adultery, because you yourselves have associated with harlots and have offered sacrifice with the effeminate, and because the people who do not understand will be defeated.

{4:15} Si fornicaris tu Israel, non delinquat saltem Iuda: et nolite ingredi in Galgala, et ne ascenderitis in Bethaven, neque iuraveritis: Vivit Dominus.
{4:15} If you commit fornication, Israel, at least let Judah not commit offenses; and do not be willing to enter into Gilgal, nor to ascend to Bethaven, and neither should you swear, “As the Lord lives.”

{4:16} Quoniam sicut vacca lasciviens declinavit Israel: nunc pascet eos Dominus, quasi agnum in latitudine.
{4:16} For Israel has gone astray like a wanton heifer; so now the Lord will pasture them like a young lamb in a wide expanse.

~ The sense here is that the young lamb is not pastured in a safeguarded fenced-in area, but in the more dangerous open countryside.

{4:17} Particeps idolorum Ephraim, dimitte eum.
{4:17} Ephraim participates in idolatry, so send him away.

{4:18} Separatum est convivium eorum, fornicatione fornicati sunt: dilexerunt afferre ignominiam protectores eius.
{4:18} Their feasting has been set aside; they have committed fornication after fornication. They love to bring disgrace to their protectors.

{4:19} Ligavit eum spiritus in alis suis, et confundentur a sacrificiis suis.
{4:19} The wind has fastened them to its wings, and they will be confounded because of their sacrifices.

[Osee 5]
[Hosea 5]

{5:1} Audite hoc sacerdotes, et attendite domus Israel, et domus regis auscultate: quia vobis iudicium est, quoniam laqueus facti estis speculationi, et rete expansum super Thabor.
{5:1} Hear this, priests, and pay attention, house of Israel, and listen closely, house of the king. For there is a judgment against you, because you have become a trap for those you watched over, and a net stretched out over Tabor.

{5:2} Et victimas declinastis in profundum: et ego eruditor omnium eorum.
{5:2} And you have led astray victims into the depths, though I am the teacher of them all.

{5:3} Ego scio Ephraim, et Israel non est absconditus a me: quia nunc fornicatus est Ephraim, contaminatus est Israel.
{5:3} I know Ephraim, and Israel has not been hidden from me, yet now Ephraim has committed fornication, and Israel has been contaminated.

{5:4} Non dabunt cogitationes suas ut revertantur ad Deum suum: quia spiritus fornicationum in medio eorum, et Dominum non cognoverunt.
{5:4} They will not set their thoughts to return to their God, for the spirit of fornication is in the midst of them, and they have not known the Lord.

{5:5} Et respondebit arrogantia Israel in facie eius: et Israel, et Ephraim ruent in iniquitate sua, ruet etiam Iudas cum eis.
{5:5} And the arrogance of Israel will answer to his face. And Israel and Ephraim will fall in their iniquity, and even Judah will fall with them.

{5:6} In gregibus suis, et in armentis suis vadent ad quærendum Dominum, et non invenient: ablatus est ab eis.
{5:6} With their flocks and their herds, they will go to seek the Lord, and they will not find him. He has taken himself away from them.

{5:7} In Dominum prævaricati sunt, quia filios alienos genuerunt: nunc devorabit eos mensis cum partibus suis.
{5:7} They have sinned against the Lord. For they have conceived sons that are strangers. Now one month will devour them with all their own.

{5:8} Clangite buccina in Gabaa, tuba in Rama: ululate in Bethaven, post tergum tuum Beniamin.
{5:8} Sound the bugle in Gibeah, the trumpet in Ramah. Shout in Bethaven, behind your back, O Benjamin.

{5:9} Ephraim in desolatione erit in die correptionis: in tribubus Israel ostendi fidem.
{5:9} Ephraim will be in desolation on the day of correction, for within the tribes of Israel, I have revealed faith.

{5:10} Facti sunt principes Iuda quasi assumentes terminum: super eos effundam quasi aquam iram meam.
{5:10} The leaders of Judah have become like those who assume the end. I will pour my wrath over them like water.

~ The phrase ‘assumentes terminum’ is obscure. I interpret it to mean that some of the leaders of the Catholic Church mistakenly assume that the end is near when it is not. Many of them will make this mistake during the first four decades of the 21st century.

{5:11} Calumniam patiens est Ephraim, fractus iudicio: quoniam cœpit abire post sordes.
{5:11} Ephraim has been enduring malicious slander and broken judgment, because he began to go after filth.

{5:12} Et ego quasi tinea Ephraim: et quasi putredo domui Iuda.
{5:12} And I will be like a moth to Ephraim, and like decay to the house of Judah.

{5:13} Et vidit Ephraim languorem suum, et Iuda vinculum suum: et abiit Ephraim ad Assur, et misit ad regem Ultorem: et ipse non poterit sanare vos, nec solvere poterit a vobis vinculum.
{5:13} And Ephraim saw his own weakness, and Judah his chains. And Ephraim went to Assur, and he sent to the Avenging king. But he will not be able to heal you, nor is he able to release you from your chains.

~ Assur is an ancient Assyrian god, and Ultorem is a word meaning ‘avenger,’ but this is a name also, hence the capitalization.

{5:14} Quoniam ego quasi leæna Ephraim, et quasi catulus leonis domui Iuda: ego, ego capiam, et vadam: tollam, et non est qui eruat.
{5:14} For I will be like a lioness to Ephraim, and like a lion’s offspring to the house of Judah. I myself will seize and go forth. I will take away, and there is no one who can rescue.

{5:15} Vadens revertar ad locum meum: donec deficiatis, et quæratis faciem meam.
{5:15} I will go and return to my place, until you shall grow faint and seek my face.

[Osee 6]
[Hosea 6]

{6:1} In tribulatione sua mane consurgent ad me: Venite, et revertamur ad Dominum:
{6:1} In their tribulation, they will arise early to me. Come, let us return to the Lord.

{6:2} quia ipse cepit, et sanabit nos: percutiet, et curabit nos.
{6:2} For he has seized us, and he will heal us. He will strike, and he will cure us.

{6:3} Vivificabit nos post duos dies: in die tertia suscitabit nos, et vivemus in conspectu eius. Sciemus, sequemurque ut cognoscamus Dominum: quasi diluculum præparatus est egressus eius, et veniet quasi imber nobis temporaneus et serotinus terræ.
{6:3} He will revive us after two days; on the third day he will raise us up, and we will live in his sight. We will understand, and we will continue on, so that we may know the Lord. His landing place has been prepared like the first light of morning, and he will come to us like the early and the late rains of the land.

~ The word ‘egressus’ usually means ‘departure’ or ‘going forth,’ but in this case, the context is that of the arrival of the Lord. Therefore, the less common meaning of ‘landing place’ is used, i.e. a point of arrival/departure.

{6:4} Quid faciam tibi Ephraim? quid faciam tibi Iuda? misericordia vestra quasi nubes matutina, et quasi ros mane pertransiens.
{6:4} What am I to do with you, Ephraim? What am I to do with you, Judah? Your mercy is like the morning mist, and like the dew passing away in the morning.

{6:5} Propter hoc dolavi in prophetis, occidi eos in verbis oris mei: et iudicia tua quasi lux egredientur.
{6:5} Because of this, I have cut them with the prophets, I have slain them with the words of my mouth; and your opinions will depart like the light.

{6:6} Quia misericordiam volui, et non sacrificium, et scientiam Dei plusquam holocausta.
{6:6} For I desired mercy and not sacrifice, and knowledge of God more than holocausts.

{6:7} Ipsi autem sicut Adam transgressi sunt pactum, ibi prævaricati sunt in me.
{6:7} But they, like Adam, have transgressed the covenant; in this, they have been dishonest with me.

~ Or, ‘in this, they have betrayed me.’ The word ‘ibi’ is usually translated as ‘there,’ but the context calls for a translation that is more natural to the English language, such as ‘in this.’

{6:8} Galaad civitas operantium idolum, supplantata sanguine.
{6:8} Gilead is a city that manufactures idols; it has been tripped up by family relations.

~ Or, ‘having been tripped up by blood.’ The meaning here is that the city fell into the error of manufacturing idols because of blood-relations, i.e. family relations. Individuals, in that time period, tended to take up whatever was the family business; the same was also true of some towns. If a town had a specialized product or service, the people of the town tended to go into that line of work (e.g. Tyrian purple, the city of Tyre specialized in making dyes).

{6:9} Et quasi fauces virorum latronum, particeps sacerdotum, in via interficientium pergentes de Sichem: quia scelus operati sunt.
{6:9} And, like those who rob with skillful words, they, by conspiring with the priests, bring a death sentence to travelers on a pilgrimage from Shechem; for they have been performing evil deeds.

~ Literally, ‘quasi fauces virorum latronum’ means ‘like the jaws of men robbers.’ The word ‘virorum’ means ‘men,’ but it has an additional connotation of a man who is virtuous or strong. In the context of robbers, the meaning is ‘strong robbers.’ But the strength of a robber’s jaw does not help him rob, unless his strength is in the skillful use of words. So, less literally, the phase says, ‘like the jaws of skillful robbers.’ But again, the passage is not literally taking about the jaws (or throats) of robbers. Criminals do not rob by using their jaws, unless it is the type of robber who tricks people with words. The comparison here is with those who are con-artists, who rob people by deceiving them with words.

~ Those called ‘particeps sacerdotum’ are not the priests themselves, but they are associates of the priests. These pastoral associates are not actually murdering people in the streets. Such a long complex sentence would not be needed to condemn such a public crime. Also, the word ‘interficientium’ typically refers to killing under authority, such as an execution by a king, or under the law, or by God. So these persons, working with the priests, influence travelers on a journey so that they deserve a death sentence from God. In other words, they lead people astray with their words. The context is religious, and so the journey is translated as a pilgrimage.

{6:10} In domo Israel vidi horrendum: ibi fornicationes Ephraim: contaminatus est Israel.
{6:10} I have seen horrible things in the house of Israel; the fornications of Ephraim are there. Israel has been contaminated.

{6:11} Sed et Iuda pone messem tibi, cum convertero captivitatem populi mei.
{6:11} But you, Judah, set a harvest for yourself, while I reverse the captivity of my people.

[Osee 7]
[Hosea 7]

{7:1} Cum sanare vellem Israel, revelata est iniquitas Ephraim, et malitia Samariæ, quia operati sunt mendacium: et fur ingressus est spolians, latrunculus foris.
{7:1} When I was willing to heal Israel, the iniquity of Ephraim was discovered, and the malice of Samaria, for they had been manufacturing lies. And the thief steals from inside, the robber from outside.

~ More literally, the last part reads, ‘And the thief has entered stealing, the robber outside.’ The less literal translation is more comprehensible and more poetic.

{7:2} Et ne forte dicant in cordibus suis omnem malitiam eorum me recordatum: nunc circumdederunt eos adinventiones suæ, coram facie mea factæ sunt.
{7:2} And, so that they may not say in their hearts that I am the one who has called to mind all of their wickedness: now their own inventions have encircled them. These things have happened in my presence.

{7:3} In malitia sua lætificaverunt regem: et in mendaciis suis principes.
{7:3} The king has rejoiced at their wickedness, and the leaders have rejoiced in their lies.

{7:4} Omnes adulterantes, quasi clibanus succensus a coquente: quievit paululum civitas a commistione fermenti, donec fermentaretur totum.
{7:4} They are all adulterers; like an oven heating up before baking, the city rested a little before the leaven was mixed in, until the whole was leavened.

~ In other words, ‘like a pre-heated oven....’

{7:5} Dies regis nostri: cœperunt principes furere a vino: extendit manum suam cum illusoribus.
{7:5} On the day of our king, the leaders began to be mad with wine; he extended his hand with those who fabricate illusions.

~ This last phrase is interesting. It is translated as ‘scoffers’ by the Douay-Rheims; it can also refer to those who mock or ridicule. But it gives rise to the English word illusion and is derived from ‘ludere,’ meaning ‘to play.’ It refers to those who put on a play, who make use of illusions to mock, in other words, to what we today call the entertainment industry or the media.

{7:6} Quia applicuerunt quasi clibanum cor suum, cum insidiaretur eis: tota nocte dormivit coquens eos, mane ipse succensus quasi ignis flammæ.
{7:6} For they have used their heart like an oven, while he laid snares for them; he slept through the night baking them, and by morning he himself was heated like a burning fire.

{7:7} Omnes calefacti sunt quasi clibanus, et devoraverunt iudices suos: omnes reges eorum ceciderunt: non est qui clamat in eis ad me.
{7:7} They have all become hot like an oven, and they have devoured their judges. All their kings have fallen. There is no one who calls to me among them.

{7:8} Ephraim in populis ipse commiscebatur: Ephraim factus est subcinericius panis, qui non reversatur.
{7:8} Ephraim himself has been mingled with the nations. Ephraim has become like bread, baked under ashes, that has not been turned over.

{7:9} Comederunt alieni robur eius, et ipse nescivit: sed et cani effusi sunt in eo, et ipse ignoravit.
{7:9} Strangers have devoured his strength, and he did not know it. And grey hairs also have spread across him, and he is ignorant of it.

{7:10} Et humiliabitur superbia Israel in facie eius: nec reversi sunt ad Dominum Deum suum, et non quæsierunt eum in omnibus his.
{7:10} And the pride of Israel will be brought low before his face, for they have not returned to the Lord their God, nor have they sought him in all of this.

~ In this case, ‘superbia’ has a positive meaning, ‘pride’ in a good sense, instead of arrogance, and ‘humiliabitur’ has a negative meaning, ‘to be brought low’ rather than to become humble, as indicated by the context.

{7:11} Et factus est Ephraim quasi columba seducta non habens cor: Ægyptum invocabant, ad Assyrios abierunt.
{7:11} And Ephraim has become like a pigeon that has been led astray, not having a heart; for they called upon Egypt, they went to the Assyrians.

{7:12} Et cum profecti fuerint, expandam super eos rete meum: quasi volucrem cæli detraham eos, cædam eos secundum auditionem cœtus eorum.
{7:12} And when they will set out, I will spread my net over them. I will pull them down like the birds of the sky; I will cut them down in accordance with the reports of their meetings.

~ The word ‘coetus’ can refer to various types of meetings: social, political, sexual, etc. The word auditionem refers to a report or the result of a meeting, such as an agreement or ruling. The phrase ‘secundum auditionem cœtus eorum’ is translated in the context of God’s objection to the people going to Egypt and Assyria for assistance and meetings and agreements. Therefore, the meaning and translation is political. God objects when the faithful seek safety from meetings and agreements with secular groups, rather than seeking help and safety from God.

{7:13} Væ eis, quoniam recesserunt a me: vastabuntur, quia prævaricati sunt in me: et ego redemi eos: et ipsi locuti sunt contra me mendacia.
{7:13} Woe to them, for they have withdrawn from me. They will waste away because they have been dishonest with me. And I redeemed them, and they have spoken lies against me.

{7:14} Et non clamaverunt ad me in corde suo, sed ululabant in cubilibus suis: super triticum et vinum ruminabant, recesserunt a me.
{7:14} And they have not cried out to me in their heart, but they howled on their beds. They have obsessed about wheat and wine; they have withdrawn from me.

~ The word ‘ruminabant’ means to chew on something, but it is used figuratively here to mean continually thinking about the same thing, in this case wheat and wine (i.e. basic necessities and entertainment).

{7:15} Et ego erudivi eos, et confortavi brachia eorum: et in me cogitaverunt malitiam.
{7:15} And I have educated them, and I have reinforced their arms; and they have imagined evil against me.

{7:16} Reversi sunt ut essent absque iugo: facti sunt quasi arcus dolosus: cadent in gladio principes eorum, a furore linguæ suæ. Ista subsannatio eorum in Terra Ægypti.
{7:16} They returned so that they might be without a yoke. They have become like a deceitful bow. Their leaders will fall by the sword because of the madness of their words. This is their derision in the land of Egypt.

[Osee 8]
[Hosea 8]

{8:1} In gutture tuo sit tuba quasi aquila super domum Domini: pro eo quod transgressi sunt fœdus meum, et legem meam prævaricati sunt.
{8:1} Let there be a trumpet in your throat, like an eagle over the house of the Lord, on behalf of those who have transgressed my covenant and violated my law.

{8:2} Me invocabunt: Deus meus cognovimus te Israel.
{8:2} They will call on me: “O my God, we, Israel, know you.”

{8:3} Proiecit Israel bonum, inimicus persequetur eum.
{8:3} Israel has thrown away goodness; the enemy will overtake him.

{8:4} Ipsi regnaverunt, et non ex me: principes exstiterunt, et non cognovi: argentum suum, et aurum suum fecerunt sibi idola, ut interirent:
{8:4} They have reigned, but not by me. Leaders have emerged, and I did not recognize them. Their silver and their gold, they have made into idols for themselves, so that they might cross over.

~ In this context, interirent does not merely mean ‘to die.’ Literally, this verb means ‘to go between,’ in other words to cross over into the next life. They think that they will be able, through the idolatry of silver and gold, money and power, to pass between this life and the next. They are mistaken.

{8:5} proiectus est vitulus tuus Samaria, iratus est furor meus in eos. Usquequo non poterunt emundari?
{8:5} Your calf, Samaria, has been rejected. My fury has been enraged against them. How long will they be incapable of being cleansed?

{8:6} Quia ex Israel et ipse est: artifex fecit illum, et non est Deus: quoniam in aranearum telas erit vitulus Samariæ.
{8:6} For it is itself also from Israel: a workman made it, and it is not God. For the calf of Samaria will be used for the webs of spiders.

~ In other words, the idolatrous statue of a calf will gather dust and collect cobwebs. Also, these idolatrous practices will fall out of use and will, metaphorically, gather dust.

{8:7} Quia ventum seminabunt, et turbinem metent: culmus stans non est in eo, germen non faciet farinam: quod et si fecerit, alieni comedent eam.
{8:7} For they will sow wind and reap a whirlwind. It does not have a firm stalk; the bud will yield no grain. But if it does yield, strangers will eat it.

{8:8} Devoratus est Israel: nunc factus est in nationibus quasi vas immundum.
{8:8} Israel has been devoured. Now, among the nations, it has become like an unclean vessel.

{8:9} Quia ipsi ascenderunt ad Assur, onager solitarius sibi: Ephraim munera dederunt amatoribus.
{8:9} For they have gone up to Assur, a wild ass alone by himself. Ephraim has given presents to his lovers.

{8:10} Sed et cum mercede conduxerint nationes, nunc congregabo eos: et quiescent paulisper ab onere regis, et principum.
{8:10} But even when they will have brought the nations together for the sake of money, now I will assemble them. And they will rest for a little while from the burden of the king and the leaders.

{8:11} Quia multiplicavit Ephraim altaria ad peccandum: factæ sunt ei aræ in delictum.
{8:11} For Ephraim multiplied altars to sin, and sanctuaries have become an offense for him.

{8:12} Scribam ei multiplices leges meas, quæ velut alienæ computatæ sunt.
{8:12} I will write to him my intricate laws, which have been treated like strangers.

{8:13} Hostias offerent, immolabunt carnes, et comedent, et Dominus non suscipiet eas: nunc recordabitur iniquitatis eorum, et visitabit peccata eorum: ipsi in Ægyptum convertentur.
{8:13} They will offer victims, they will immolate flesh and will eat, and the Lord will not accept them. For now he will remember their iniquity, and he will repay their sins: they will be turned back to Egypt.

{8:14} Et oblitus est Israel Factoris sui, et ædificavit delubra: et Iudas multiplicavit urbes munitas: et mittam ignem in civitates eius, et devorabit ædes illius.
{8:14} And Israel has forgotten his Maker and has built shrines. And Judah has increased its fortified cities. And I will send fire upon his cities, and it will devour its structures.

~ Or, ‘And Israel has been neglectful of his Maker.’ Or, ‘And Israel has forgotten his Maker.’ The word ‘aedes’ can mean homes, or shrines, or buildings in general. Since the same verse complains about Israel’s shrines, the fire burns the shrines as well as the homes and other buildings.

[Osee 9]
[Hosea 9]

{9:1} Noli lætari Israel, noli exultare sicut populi: quia fornicatus es a Deo tuo, dilexisti mercedem super omnes areas tritici.
{9:1} Do not choose to rejoice, Israel; do not celebrate as the crowds do. For you have been committing fornication against your God; you have loved a prize upon every threshing floor of wheat.

{9:2} Area et torcular non pascet eos, et vinum mentietur eis.
{9:2} The threshing floor and the oil press will not feed them, and the wine will deceive them.

{9:3} Non habitabunt in terra Domini: reversus est Ephraim in Ægyptum, et in Assyriis pollutum comedit.
{9:3} They will not dwell in the land of the Lord. Ephraim has been returned to Egypt, and he has eaten polluted things among the Assyrians.

{9:4} Non libabunt Domino vinum, et non placebunt ei: sacrificia eorum quasi panis lugentium. Omnes, qui comedent eum, contaminabuntur: quia panis eorum animæ ipsorum, non intrabit in domum Domini.
{9:4} They will not offer a libation of wine to the Lord, and they will not please him. Their sacrifices will be like the bread of mourners. All those who eat it will be defiled. For their bread is of their soul; it will not enter into the house of the Lord.

{9:5} Quid facietis in die sollemni, in die festivitatis Domini?
{9:5} What will you do on the solemn day, on the day of the feast of the Lord?

{9:6} Ecce enim profecti sunt a vastitate: Ægyptus congregabit eos, Memphis sepeliet eos: desiderabile argentum eorum urtica hereditabit, lappa in tabernaculis eorum.
{9:6} For, behold, they have been sent away by devastation. Egypt will gather them together; Memphis will bury them. Nettles will inherit their desired silver; the burr will be in their tabernacles.

{9:7} Venerunt dies visitationis, venerunt dies retributionis: scitote Israel stultum prophetam, insanum virum spiritualem, propter multitudinem iniquitatis tuæ, et multitudinem amentiæ.
{9:7} The days of visitation have arrived; the days of retribution are here. Know this, Israel: that the prophet was foolish, the spiritual man was mad, because of the multitude of your iniquities and the great extent of your foolishness.

{9:8} Speculator Ephraim cum Deo meo: propheta laqueus ruinæ factus est super omnes vias eius, insania in domo Dei eius.
{9:8} The watcher of Ephraim was with my God. The prophet has become a snare of ruin over all his ways; insanity is in the house of his God.

{9:9} Profunde peccaverunt, sicut in diebus Gabaa: recordabitur iniquitatis eorum, et visitabit peccata eorum.
{9:9} They have sinned profoundly, just as in the days of Gibeah. He will remember their iniquity, and he will repay their sin.

{9:10} Quasi uvas in deserto inveni Israel: quasi prima poma ficulneæ in cacumine eius vidi patres eorum: ipsi autem intraverunt ad Beelphegor, et abalienati sunt in confusionem, et facti sunt abominabiles sicut ea, quæ dilexerunt.
{9:10} I discovered Israel like grapes in the desert. Like the first fruits of the fig tree, I saw their fathers on the end of its branches. But they went in to Baal-peor, and they have been estranged by intermingling, and they have become abominable, just like the things that they chose to love.

~ The word ‘dilexerunt’ means to choose or to love, or, in this case, it means a little of both: what they choose to love instead of God.

{9:11} Ephraim quasi avis avolavit, gloria eorum a partu, et ab utero, et a conceptu.
{9:11} Ephraim has chased away their glory like a bird: from birth, and from the womb, and from conception.

~ It is not that the glory of Ephraim has ‘flown away’ on its own like a bird. No, instead Ephraim has chased their glory away, as one chases a bird away.

{9:12} Quod et si enutrierint filios suos, absque liberis eos faciam in hominibus: sed et væ eis cum recessero ab eis.
{9:12} And even if they should nurture their sons, I will make them without children among men. Yes, and woe to them, when I have withdrawn from them.

{9:13} Ephraim, ut vidi, Tyrus erat fundata in pulchritudine: et Ephraim educet ad interfectorem filios suos.
{9:13} Ephraim, as I see it, was a Tyre, founded by beauty. And Ephraim will lead his sons to execution.

~ The word ‘interfectorem’ does not generally refer to murder, but to killing under authority, as when a king orders an execution, or when God so orders. Ephraim is leading his sons astray from God’s law, so they are justly condemned by God’s authority.

{9:14} Da eis Domine. Quid dabis eis? Da eis vulvam sine liberis, et ubera arentia.
{9:14} Give them, O Lord. What will you give them? Give them a womb without children, and dry breasts.

{9:15} Omnes nequitiæ eorum in Galgal, quia ibi exosos habui eos: propter malitiam adinventionum eorum de domo mea eiiciam eos: non addam ut diligam eos, omnes principes eorum recedentes.
{9:15} All their wickedness is in Gilgal, for I held them there, in their hatred. Because of the malice of their inventions, I will expel them from my house. I will no longer say that I love them; all their leaders have retreated.

~ God is not hating them, ‘exosos,’ but rather, God held them there, ‘ibi habui eos,’ hating (i.e. because they were hating, or in their hatred).

{9:16} Percussus est Ephraim, radix eorum exsiccata est: fructum nequaquam facient. Quod et si genuerint, interficiam amantissima uteri eorum.
{9:16} Ephraim has been struck; their root has been dried out: by no means will they yield fruit. And even if they should conceive, I will execute the most beloved of their womb.

{9:17} Abiiciet eos Deus meus, quia non audierunt eum: et erunt vagi in nationibus.
{9:17} My God will cast them aside because they have not listened to him; and they will be wanderers among the nations.

[Osee 10]
[Hosea 10]

{10:1} Vitis frondosa Israel, fructus adæquatus est ei: secundum multitudinem fructus sui multiplicavit altaria, iuxta ubertatem terræ suæ exuberavit simulachris.
{10:1} Israel is a leafy vine, its fruit has been suitable to him. According to the multitude of his fruit, he has multiplied altars; according to the fertility of his land, he has abounded with graven images.

~ Or, ‘he has gushed forth idols.’ The word ‘simulachris’ means images, but is often used to refer to idolatrous images or statues.

{10:2} Divisum est cor eorum, nunc interibunt: ipse confringet simulachra eorum, depopulabitur aras eorum.
{10:2} His heart has been divided, so now they will cross the divide. He will break apart their images; he will plunder their sanctuaries.

~ There is a play on words in the Latin that is difficult to express in English. ‘His heart has been divided, so now they will...’ and the next word sometimes refers to death, but literally means ‘to go between’ or ‘to cross over.’ Israel is referred to in the third person singular in this passage, but ‘they will cross the divide’ is plural. In other words, because his heart has been divided, now they (a group of enemies) will ‘cross the divide,’ i.e. they will cross borders and bring destruction and death. Because the word ‘interibunt’ often refers to death, the crossing of the borders has an ominous implication.

{10:3} Quia nunc dicent: Non est rex nobis: non enim timemus Dominum: et rex quid faciet nobis?
{10:3} For now they will say, “We have no king. For we do not fear the Lord. And what would a king do for us?”

{10:4} Loquimini verba visionis inutilis, et ferietis fœdus: et germinabit quasi amaritudo iudicium super sulcos agri.
{10:4} You speak words about a useless vision, and you will strike a deal. And judgment will spring up like bitterness in the furrows of the field.

{10:5} Vaccas Bethaven coluerunt habitatores Samariæ: quia luxit super eum populus eius, et æditui eius super eum exultaverunt in gloria eius, quia migravit ab eo.
{10:5} The inhabitants of Samaria have worshipped the calf of Bethaven. For the keepers of its temple, who had exulted over it in its glory, and its people, have mourned over it because it migrated from there.

{10:6} Siquidem et ipse in Assur delatus est, munus regi Ultori: confusio Ephraim capiet, et confundetur Israel in voluntate sua.
{10:6} If, indeed, it also has been offered to Assur, as a gift for the Avenging king, confusion will seize Ephraim, and Israel will be confounded by his own will.

{10:7} Transire fecit Samaria regem suum quasi spumam super faciem aquæ.
{10:7} Samaria has required her king to pass by, like foam on the face of the water.

{10:8} Et disperdentur excelsa idoli, peccatum Israel: lappa, et tribulus ascendet super aras eorum: et dicent montibus: Operite nos; et collibus: Cadite super nos.
{10:8} And the heights of the idol, the sin of Israel, will be utterly destroyed. The burr and the thistle will rise up over their altars. And they will say to the mountains, ‘Cover us,’ and to the hills, ‘Fall on us.’

~ The word ‘cadite’ also means to die, so there is an implication that the people want the hills to kill them, not to protect them.

{10:9} Ex diebus Gabaa, peccavit Israel, ibi steterunt: non comprehendet eos in Gabaa prælium super filios iniquitatis.
{10:9} From the days of Gibeah, Israel has sinned; in this, they remained firm. The battle in Gibeah against the sons of iniquity will not take hold of them.

~ The word ‘steterunt’ is often misunderstood to mean ‘to stand,’ when it often means ‘to stand firm’ or ‘to remain firm.’ Israel has remained firm ‘there’ or ‘in that matter’ or ‘in this.’

~ Also, they will not join in the battle against evil-doers. This battle does not interest them because they also are sons of iniquity.

{10:10} Iuxta desiderium meum corripiam eos: congregabuntur super eos populi, cum corripientur propter duas iniquitates suas.
{10:10} According to my desire, I will correct them. And the peoples will be gathered together over them, while they are chastised for their two iniquities.

{10:11} Ephraim vitula docta diligere trituram, et ego transivi super pulchritudinem colli eius: ascendam super Ephraim, arabit Iudas, confringet sibi sulcos Iacob.
{10:11} Ephraim is a heifer that has been taught to love treading out the grain, but I passed over the beauty of her neck. I will rise over Ephraim. Judah will plough; Jacob will break up the soil for himself.

{10:12} Seminate vobis in iustitia, et metite in ore misericordiæ, innovate vobis novale: tempus autem requirendi Dominum, cum venerit qui docebit vos iustitiam.
{10:12} Sow for yourselves in justice, and harvest in the mouth of mercy; renew your fallow land. But the time when you will seek the Lord is the time when he will arrive who will teach you justice.

{10:13} Arastis impietatem, iniquitatem messuistis, comedistis frugem mendacii: quia confisus es in viis tuis, in multitudine fortium tuorum.
{10:13} You have ploughed impiety; you have harvested iniquity; you have eaten the fruit of lies. For you had confidence in your ways, in the multitude of your good fortunes.

~ Or, ‘ the multitude of your strengths.’

{10:14} Consurget tumultus in populo tuo: et omnes munitiones tuæ vastabuntur, sicut vastatus est Salmana a domo eius qui iudicavit Baal in die prælii, matre super filios allisa.
{10:14} A tumult will arise among your people. And all your fortifications will be laid waste, just as Salman was destroyed by the house of him that judged Baal on the day of the battle, the mother having been crushed against her sons.

{10:15} Sic fecit vobis Bethel, a facie malitiæ nequitiarum vestrarum.
{10:15} So has Bethel done to you, before the face of your malicious wickedness.

[Osee 11]
[Hosea 11]

{11:1} Sicut mane transiit, pertransiit rex Israel. Quia puer Israel, et dilexi eum: et ex Ægypto vocavi filium meum.
{11:1} Just as the morning passes, so has the king of Israel passed by. For Israel was a child and I loved him; and out of Egypt I called my son.

{11:2} Vocaverunt eos, sic abierunt a facie eorum: Baalim immolabant, et simulachris sacrificabant.
{11:2} They called them, and so they departed before their face. They offered victims to the Baals, and they sacrificed to graven images.

{11:3} Et ego quasi nutricius Ephraim, portabam eos in brachiis meis: et nescierunt quod curarem eos.
{11:3} And I was like a foster father to Ephraim. I carried them in my arms. And they did not know that I healed them.

{11:4} In funiculis Adam traham eos, in vinculis charitatis: et ero eis quasi exaltans iugum super maxillas eorum: et declinavi ad eum ut vesceretur.
{11:4} I will draw them with the cords of Adam, with the bands of love. And I will be to them like one who raises the yoke over their jaws. And I will reach down to him so that he may eat.

{11:5} Non revertetur in Terram Ægypti, et Assur ipse rex eius: quoniam noluerunt converti.
{11:5} He will not return to the land of Egypt, but Assur himself will be the king over him, because they were not willing to be converted.

~ Assur can refer to the Assyrian god, or to a city named after that god. Either the city of Assur, representing the place where leadership resides in a particular country, or Assur the Assyrian god, will rule over them.

{11:6} Cœpit gladius in civitatibus eius, et consumet electos eius, et comedet capita eorum.
{11:6} The sword has begun in his cities, and it will consume his elect and devour their heads.

{11:7} Et populus meus pendebit ad reditum meum: iugum autem imponetur eis simul, quod non auferetur.
{11:7} And my people will long for my return. But a yoke will be imposed on them together, which will not be taken away.

{11:8} Quomodo dabo te Ephraim, protegam te Israel? quomodo dabo te sicut Adama, ponam te, ut Seboim? Conversum est in me cor meum, pariter conturbata est pœnitudo mea.
{11:8} How will I provide for you, Ephraim; how will I protect you, Israel? How will I provide for you as for Adam; will I set you like Zeboiim? My heart has changed within me; together with my regret, it has been stirred up.

{11:9} Non faciam furorem iræ meæ: non convertar ut disperdam Ephraim: quoniam Deus ego, et non homo: in medio tui Sanctus, et non ingrediar civitatem.
{11:9} I will not act on the fury of my wrath. I will not turn back to utterly destroy Ephraim. For I am God, and not man, the Divine in your midst, and I will not advance upon the city.

{11:10} Post Dominum ambulabunt, quasi leo rugiet: quia ipse rugiet, et formidabunt filii maris.
{11:10} They will walk after the Lord; he will roar like a lion. For he himself will roar, and the sons of the sea will dread.

{11:11} Et avolabunt quasi avis ex Ægypto, et quasi columba de Terra Assyriorum: et collocabo eos in domibus suis, dicit Dominus.
{11:11} And they will fly like a bird out of Egypt, and like a dove from the land of the Assyrians. And I will arrange them in their own houses, says the Lord.

{11:12} Circumdedit me in negatione Ephraim, et in dolo domus Israel: Iudas autem testis descendit cum Deo, et cum sanctis fidelis.
{11:12} Ephraim has besieged me with denials, and the house of Israel with deceit. But Judah went down as a witness before God and the holy ones of faith.

~ The word ‘sanctis’ is plural, so it does not refer to God, and ‘fidelis’ is genitive, so the translation is ‘the holy ones (or the saints) of faith (or of faithfulness).’

[Osee 12]
[Hosea 12]

{12:1} Ephraim pascit ventum, et sequitur æstum: tota die mendacium, et vastitatem multiplicat: et fœdus cum Assyriis iniit, et oleum in Ægyptum ferebat.
{12:1} Ephraim feeds on wind and follows burning heat; all day long he multiplies lies and desolation. And he has entered into a pact with the Assyrians, and he has carried oil into Egypt.

{12:2} Iudicium ergo Domini cum Iuda, et visitatio super Iacob: iuxta vias eius, et iuxta adinventiones eius reddet ei.
{12:2} Therefore, the judgment of the Lord is with Judah and a visitation is upon Jacob. He will repay him according to his ways and according to his inventions.

{12:3} In utero supplantavit fratrem suum: et in fortitudine sua directus est cum angelo.
{12:3} In the womb, he supplanted his brother; for in his good fortune, he had been guided by an angel.

~ The two parts of this verse are closely related. The second part refers to his ‘good fortune’ (not ‘strength’ in this context) of having been able to supplant his brother. This act of God’s Providence was guided by an angel.

{12:4} Et invaluit ad angelum, et confortatus est: flevit, et rogavit eum: in Bethel invenit eum, et ibi locutus est nobiscum.
{12:4} And he prevailed over an angel, for he had been strengthened. He wept and petitioned him. He found him in Bethel, and there he has spoken to us.

{12:5} Et Dominus Deus exercituum, Dominus memoriale eius.
{12:5} And the Lord God of hosts, the Lord is his memorial.

{12:6} Et tu ad Deum tuum converteris: misericordiam et iudicium custodi, et spera in Deo tuo semper.
{12:6} And so, you should convert to your God. Keep mercy and judgment, and have hope in your God always.

{12:7} Chanaan, in manu eius statera dolosa, calumniam dilexit.
{12:7} Canaan, in his hand is a deceitful balance, he has chosen false accusations.

{12:8} Et dixit Ephraim: Verumtamen dives effectus sum, inveni idolum mihi: omnes labores mei non invenient mihi iniquitatem, quam peccavi.
{12:8} And Ephraim has said, “Nevertheless, I have become rich; I have found an idol for myself. All of my labors will not reveal to me the iniquity that I have committed.”

{12:9} Et ego Dominus Deus tuus ex Terra Ægypti, adhuc sedere te faciam in tabernaculis, sicut in diebus festivitatis.
{12:9} And I, the Lord your God from the land of Egypt, nevertheless will cause you to dwell in tabernacles, just as during the days of the feast.

~ The Jewish Feast of Tabernacles is referred to here. God will make them dwell in makeshift tents and huts, as they do during the days of the Feast of Tabernacles.

{12:10} Et locutus sum super prophetas, et ego visionem multiplicavi, et in manu prophetarum assimilatus sum.
{12:10} And I have spoken through the prophets, and I have multiplied visions, and I have used parables through the hands of the prophets.

{12:11} Si Galaad idolum, ergo frustra erant in Galgal bobus immolantes: nam et altaria eorum quasi acervi super sulcos agri:
{12:11} If Gilead is an idol, then they have been sacrificing cattle in Gilgal to no purpose. For even their altars are like clutter on the soil of the field.

~ The word ‘acervi’ can mean have a positive connotations, as in ‘stockpiles’ or ‘crops’ of grain. It can also have a negative connotation, as in ‘heaps’ of refuse or ‘clutter,’ as in this case.

{12:12} Fugit Iacob in regionem Syriæ, et servivit Israel in uxorem, et in uxorem servavit.
{12:12} Jacob fled into the region of Syria, and Israel served like a wife, and was served by a wife.

~ The use of the words ‘servivit’ and ‘servavit’ is a play on words. To keep a similar play on words and maintain the same range of meaning, the translation is ‘served’ and ‘was served by.’ A more literal translation would make the latter verb something like: ‘kept’ or ‘watched over.’

{12:13} In propheta autem eduxit Dominus Israel de Ægypto: et in propheta servatus est.
{12:13} Yet by a prophet the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, and he was served by a prophet.

{12:14} Ad iracundiam me provocavit Ephraim in amaritudinibus suis, et sanguis eius super eum veniet, et opprobrium eius restituet ei Dominus suus.
{12:14} Ephraim has provoked me to wrath with his bitterness, and his blood will overcome him, and his Lord will requite him for his shamefulness.

[Osee 13]
[Hosea 13]

{13:1} Loquente Ephraim, horror invasit Israel, et deliquit in Baal, et mortuus est.
{13:1} While Ephraim was speaking, a horror entered Israel, and he offended by Baal, and he died.

{13:2} Et nunc addiderunt ad peccandum: feceruntque sibi conflatile de argento suo quasi similitudinem idolorum, factura artificum totum est: his ipsi dicunt: Immolate homines vitulos adorantes.
{13:2} And now they add that they will be sinning more. And they have made themselves an image cast from their silver, just like the image of idols; but the whole thing has been made by craftsmen. These say to them, “Sacrifice men, you who adore calves.”

{13:3} Idcirco erunt quasi nubes matutina, et sicut ros matutinus præteriens, sicut pulvis turbine raptus ex area, et sicut fumus de fumario.
{13:3} For this reason, they will be like the morning clouds, and like the morning dew that passes away, just like the dust that is driven by a whirlwind away from the threshing floor, and like the smoke from a chimney.

{13:4} Ego autem Dominus Deus tuus ex Terra Ægypti: et Deum absque me nescies, et Salvator non est præter me.
{13:4} But I am the Lord your God from the land of Egypt, and you will not know God apart from me, and there is no Savior except me.

{13:5} Ego cognovi te in deserto, in terra solitudinis.
{13:5} I knew you in the desert, in the land of solitude.

{13:6} Iuxta pascua sua adimpleti sunt, et saturati sunt: et levaverunt cor suum, et obliti sunt mei.
{13:6} According to their pastures, they have been filled up and have been satisfied. And they have lifted up their heart, and they have forgotten me.

~ Or, ‘and they have been neglectful of me.’

{13:7} Et ego ero eis quasi leæna, sicut pardus in via Assyriorum.
{13:7} And I will be to them like a lioness, like a leopard in the way of the Assyrians.

{13:8} Occurram eis quasi ursa raptis catulis, et dirumpam interiora iecoris eorum: et consumam eos ibi quasi leo, bestia agri scindet eos.
{13:8} I will run to meet them like a bear that has been robbed of her young, and I will split open the middle of their liver. And I will devour them there like a lion; the beast of the field will tear them apart.

{13:9} Perditio tua Israel: tantummodo in me auxilium tuum.
{13:9} Perdition is yours, Israel. Your help is only in me.

{13:10} Ubi est rex tuus? maxime nunc salvet te in omnibus urbibus tuis: et iudices tui, de quibus dixisti: Da mihi regem, et principes.
{13:10} Where is your king? Now, especially, let him save you in all your cities, and from your judges, about whom you said, “Give me kings and princes.”

{13:11} Dabo tibi regem in furore meo, et auferam in indignatione mea.
{13:11} I will give you a king in my wrath, and I will take him away in my indignation.

{13:12} Colligata est iniquitas Ephraim, absconditum peccatum eius.
{13:12} The iniquity of Ephraim has been bound; his sin has been engulfed.

~ The word ‘absconditum’ usually is translated as ‘hidden.’ But, in this context, Ephraim’s sins are not hidden from view, rather, he is being restrained because of his sins. Therefore, the translation is ‘engulfed’ rather than ‘hidden.’ Context is so important to translation that the same word in Latin cannot be always translated, in any context, by the same corresponding word in English.

{13:13} Dolores parturientis venient ei: ipse filius non sapiens: nunc enim non stabit in contritione filiorum.
{13:13} The pains of giving birth will reach him. He is an unwise son. For now he will not remain firm during the contrition of his sons.

{13:14} De manu mortis liberabo eos, de morte redimam eos: ero mors tua o mors, morsus tuus ero inferne: consolatio abscondita est ab oculis meis.
{13:14} I will free them from the hand of death; from death I will redeem them. Death, I will be your death. Hell, I will be your deadly wound. Consolation is hidden from my eyes.

~ Here is another play on words in Latin. Death is ‘mors’ and bite is ‘morsus.’ This play on words ought to survive the translation. Since the ‘bite’ refers to the ‘bite of death,’ the translation of ‘mortal wound’ or ‘deadly wound’ is justified. Note that ‘inferne’ is often translated as ‘Hell,’ but it usually does not specifically refer to that place where souls are punished forever. It has a more general meaning, like ‘underworld,’ or ‘afterlife.’ In this case, God is freeing people from the bite of death. Hellfire is the bite of death and a deadly wound.

{13:15} Quia ipse inter fratres dividet: adducet urentem ventum Dominus de deserto ascendentem: et siccabit venas eius, et desolabit fontem eius, et ipse diripiet thesaurum omnis vasis desiderabilis.
{13:15} For he will make a division among brothers. The Lord will bring a burning wind, rising up from the desert, and it will dry up his streams, and it will make his fountain desolate, and he will tear apart every collection of desirable useful things.

~ This word ‘venas’ usually means ‘blood vessels’ or ‘fissures’ in the ground (e.g. veins of silver). But in this context it refers to veins of water, such as streams or springs. The next phrase uses ‘fontem’ to refer to springs, so the previous phrase is rendered ‘streams.’ In the last phrase, a very literal translations would be: ‘he will tear apart the treasure chest of every desirable vessel.’ However, ‘thesaurum’ does not always mean ‘treasure.’ It can also refer to any collection of valuable things, as in this phrase where the valuable things are ‘vasis desiderabilis,’ i.e. useful equipment or desirable useful things. The word order is changed so that the phrase sounds better in English, from ‘collections of every desirable useful thing,’ to ‘every collection of desirable useful things.’

[Osee 14]
[Hosea 14]

{14:1} Pereat Samaria, quoniam ad amaritudinem concitavit Deum suum: in gladio pereant, parvuli eorum elidantur, et fœtæ eius discindantur.
{14:1} Let Samaria perish, because she has urged her God towards bitterness. Let them perish by the sword, let their little ones be thrown down, and let their pregnant women be cut in two.

{14:2} Convertere Israel ad Dominum Deum tuum: quoniam corruisti in iniquitate tua.
{14:2} Israel, convert to the Lord your God. For you have been ruined by your own iniquity.

{14:3} Tollite vobiscum verba, et convertimini ad Dominum: et dicite ei: Omnem aufer iniquitatem, accipe bonum: et reddemus vitulos labiorum nostrorum.
{14:3} Take these words with you and return to the Lord. And say to him, “Remove all iniquity and accept the good. And we will repay the calves of our lips.

{14:4} Assur non salvabit nos, super equum non ascendemus, nec dicemus ultra: Dii nostri opera manuum nostrarum: quia eius, qui in te est, misereberis pupilli.
{14:4} Assur will not save us; we will not ride on horses. Neither will we say any more, ‘The works of our hands are our gods,’ for those that are in you will have mercy on the orphan.”

{14:5} Sanabo contritiones eorum, diligam eos spontanee: quia aversus est furor meus ab eis.
{14:5} I will heal their contrition; I will love them spontaneously. For my wrath has been turned away from them.

{14:6} Ero quasi ros, Israel germinabit sicut lilium, et erumpet radix eius ut Libani.
{14:6} I will be like the dew; Israel will spring forth like the lily, and his root will spread out like that of the cedars of Lebanon.

{14:7} Ibunt rami eius, et erit quasi oliva gloria eius: et odor eius ut Libani.
{14:7} His branches will advance, and his glory will be like the olive tree, and his fragrance will be like that of the cedars of Lebanon.

{14:8} Convertentur sedentes in umbra eius: vivent tritico, et germinabunt quasi vinea: memoriale eius sicut vinum Libani.
{14:8} They will be converted, sitting in his shadow. They will live on wheat, and they will grow like a vine. His memorial will be like the wine of the cedars of Lebanon.

{14:9} Ephraim quid mihi ultra idola? ego exaudiam, et dirigam eum ego ut abietem virentem: ex me fructus tuus inventus est.
{14:9} Ephraim will say, “What are idols to me anymore?” I will listen to him, and I will set him straight like a healthy spruce tree. Your fruit has been found by me.

~ The word ‘dirigam’ means to guide or to direct, but since this is a comparison with a healthy spruce tree (a tree that grows straight and tall), the translation of ‘dirigam’ takes this into account and so uses the phrase ‘set him straight,’ in place of direct or guide.

{14:10} Quis sapiens, et intelliget ista? intelligens, et sciet hæc? quia rectæ viæ Domini, et iusti ambulabunt in eis: prævaricatores vero corruent in eis.
{14:10} Who is wise and will understand this? Who has understanding and will know these things? For the ways of the Lord are straight, and the just will walk in them, but truly, the traitors will fall in them.

~ The ‘prævaricatores’ are those who are supposed to be on your side in a dispute, but have secretly helped your opponent. In other words, it means traitors.

The Sacred BibleThe Prophecy of Hosea