The Sacred BibleThe Prophecy of Nahum
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[Nahum 1]

{1:1} Onus Ninive: Liber visionis Nahum Elcesæi.
{1:1} The burden of Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.

{1:2} Deus æmulator, et ulciscens Dominus: ulciscens Dominus, et habens furorem: ulciscens Dominus in hostes suos, et irascens ipse inimicis suis.
{1:2} God is a rival, and the Lord is avenging. The Lord is avenging, and one who applies wrath. The Lord is avenging with his enemies, and he becomes angry with his adversaries.

~ Or, ‘God is jealous and an avenging Lord.’ The word ‘æmulator’ can refer to a rival or a competitor or to one who is jealous. This verse is contrasted with the next.

{1:3} Dominus patiens, et magnus fortitudine, et mundans non faciet innocentem. Dominus in tempestate, et turbine viæ eius, et nebulæ pulvis pedum eius.
{1:3} The Lord is patient and great in strength, and those who are not clean, he makes innocent. The Lord is in a tempest, and his way is a whirlwind, and the clouds are dust at his feet.

~ The Lord takes those who are not clean ‘mundans non,’ and he makes them into those who are innocent. The Lord dwells in a tempest and his way is like a whirlwind. This verse is often mistranslated.

{1:4} Increpans mare, et exiccans illud: et omnia flumina ad desertum deducens. Infirmatus est Basan, et Carmelus: et flos Libani elanguit.
{1:4} He is the one who rebukes the sea, and who dries it up, and who leads all the rivers to the desert. Basan has been weakened, and also Carmel, and the flower of Lebanon has languished.

~ He not only dries out the sea, he also waters the desert.

{1:5} Montes commoti sunt ab eo, et colles desolati sunt: et contremuit terra a facie eius, et orbis, et omnes habitantes in eo.
{1:5} The mountains have trembled before him, and the hills have become desolate, and the earth has quaked before his face, both the world and all that dwells in it.

{1:6} Ante faciem indignationis eius quis stabit? et quis resistet in ira furoris eius? indignatio eius effusa est ut ignis: et petræ dissolutæ sunt ab eo.
{1:6} Who can stand firm before the face of his indignation? And who can continue against the fury of his wrath? His indignation has broken out like a fire, and the rocks have been dissolved before him.

{1:7} Bonus Dominus, et confortans in die tribulationis: et sciens sperantes in se.
{1:7} The Lord is good, and a comforter in the day of tribulation, and he knows those who hope in him.

{1:8} Et in diluvio prætereunte, consummationem faciet loci eius: et inimicos eius persequentur tenebræ.
{1:8} And in the flood that passes over, he brings to consummation the end of his place. And darkness shall pursue his adversaries.

{1:9} Quid cogitatis contra Dominum? consummationem ipse faciet: non consurget duplex tribulatio.
{1:9} What are you thinking up against the Lord? He will accomplish the consummation. There shall not rise up a double tribulation.

{1:10} Quia sicut spinæ se invicem complectuntur, sic convivium eorum pariter potantium: consumentur quasi stipula ariditate plena.
{1:10} For just as thorns entwine one another, so also, while they are feasting and drinking together, they will be consumed like stubble that is completely dry.

{1:11} Ex te exibit cogitans contra Dominum malitiam: mente pertractans prævaricationem.
{1:11} Out of you will go forth one who thinks up evil against the Lord, dragging betrayals through his mind.

{1:12} Hæc dicit Dominus: Si perfecti fuerint: et ita plures, sic quoque attondentur, et pertransibit: afflixi te, et non affligam te ultra.
{1:12} Thus says the Lord: If they had been perfect, and many of them so, yet still they would be pruned, and it will cross through them. I have afflicted you, and I shall afflict you no more.

~ The word ‘pertransibit’ could also be rendered as ‘he will pass through,’ referring to the individual in verse 1:11 (probably referring to the Antichrist). But the expression ‘Thus says the Lord’ seems to start a new topic, so the translation is ‘it will pass over’ or ‘it will cross through.’ In other words, the affliction sent by God is unavoidable, but it will end.

{1:13} Et nunc conteram virgam eius de dorso tuo, et vincula tua disrumpam.
{1:13} And now I will shatter his rod from your back, and I will break open your bonds.

{1:14} Et præcipiet super te Dominus, non seminabitur ex nomine tuo amplius: de domo Dei tui interficiam sculptile, et conflatile, ponam sepulchrum tuum, quia inhonoratus es.
{1:14} And the Lord will place a commandment over you; nothing more from your name will be sown. From the house of your God, I will order destroyed the graven image and the molten image. I will prepare your grave, because you are not honorable.

~ Here is an example of the use of ‘interficiam,’ which usually refers to the execution of a criminal by one with the authority to put someone to death, instead to refer to one who is in authority who orders the destruction of inanimate objects, as if these were being put to death like criminals. In this case, God is executing these graven images and molten images, ordering their destruction.

{1:15} Ecce super montes pedes evangelizantis, et annunciantis pacem: celebra Iuda festivitates tuas, et redde vota tua: quia non adiiciet ultra ut pertranseat in te Belial: universus interiit.
{1:15} Behold, over the mountains, the feet of the Evangelizer and the Announcer of peace. Judah, celebrate your festivals and keep your vows. For Belial will never again pass through you; he has completely passed away.

~ The evangelizer is Christ and the announcer of peace is the Virgin Mary. This passage indicates that both Christ and Mary will return at the end of the Antichrist’s reign. The name “Belial” refers to the Antichrist.

[Nahum 2]

{2:1} Ascendit qui dispergat coram te, qui custodiat obsidionem: contemplare viam, conforta lumbos, robora virtutem valde.
{2:1} He ascends, who would scatter before your eyes, who would maintain the blockade. Contemplate the way, fortify your back, reinforce virtue greatly.

{2:2} Quia reddidit Dominus superbiam Iacob, sicut superbiam Israel: quia vastatores dissipaverunt eos, et propagines eorum corruperunt.
{2:2} For the Lord has repaid the arrogance of Jacob, just like the arrogance of Israel. For the despoilers have scattered them, and they have corrupted their procreation.

{2:3} Clypeus fortium eius ignitus, viri exercitus in coccineis: igneæ habenæ currus in die præparationis eius, et agitatores consopiti sunt.
{2:3} The shield of his strong ones is fire, the men of war are in scarlet. The reins of the chariot are fiery in the day of his preparation, and the drivers have been drugged.

~ The ‘agitatores’ (drivers) ‘consopiti sunt’ (have been drugged). The verb ‘sopio’ refers, not merely falling asleep at the end of every day, but to something that causes sleep unnaturally, such as a soporific or a blow to the head. The prefix ‘con’ intensifies the meaning of this verb, so that it is clear that the drivers are not merely sleepy, but they have been drugged.

{2:4} In itineribus conturbati sunt: quadrigæ collisæ sunt in plateis: aspectus eorum quasi lampades, quasi fulgura discurrentia.
{2:4} They have become confused on their journey. The four-horse chariots have collided in the streets. Their appearance is like torches, like lightning dashing around.

{2:5} Recordabitur fortium suorum, ruent in itineribus suis: velociter ascendent muros eius, et præparabitur umbraculum.
{2:5} He will call to mind his strong ones; they will destroy along their journey. They will quickly ascend its walls, and a shelter will be prepared.

{2:6} Portæ fluviorum apertæ sunt, et templum ad solum dirutum.
{2:6} The gates of the rivers have been opened, and the temple has been pulled down to the ground.

{2:7} Et miles captivus abductus est: et ancillæ eius minabantur gementes ut columbæ, murmurantes in cordibus suis.
{2:7} And the foot soldier has been led away captive, and her handmaids were driven away, mourning like doves, murmuring in their hearts.

{2:8} Et Ninive quasi piscina aquarum aquæ eius: ipsi vero fugerunt: State, state, et non est qui revertatur.
{2:8} And Nineveh, her waters are like a fish pond. Yet truly, they have fled away: “Stand, stand!” But there is no one who will turn back.

~ The city becomes, in war, like shooting fish in a barrel. Yet the soldiers flee. “State, state!” The cry is heard: “Stand your ground, stand your ground!” But no one turns back.

{2:9} Diripite argentum, diripite aurum: et non est finis divitiarum ex omnibus vasis desiderabilibus.
{2:9} Despoil the silver, despoil the gold. And there is no end to all the riches of desirable equipment.

{2:10} Dissipata est, et scissa, et dilacerata: et cor tabescens, et dissolutio geniculorum, et defectio in cunctis renibus: et facies omnium eorum sicut nigredo ollæ.
{2:10} She has been scattered, and cut, and torn apart. And the heart melts, and the knees buckle, and weakness is in every temperament. And the faces of them all are like a black kettle.

~ The expression ‘defectio in cunctis renibus’ literally means that there is a weakness or failure in everyone’s kidneys. The kidneys in ancient texts represent not so much the actual internal organ, but the idea of temperament, composure, patience, or the lack of these things, so the text has a general meaning of loss of composure.

{2:11} Ubi est habitaculum leonum, et pascua catulorum leonum, ad quam ivit leo ut ingrederetur illuc, catulus leonis, et non est qui exterreat?
{2:11} Where is the dwelling place of the lions, and the feeding ground of the young lions, to which the lion went, so as to open a way for the young lion, and so that there would be none to make them afraid?

{2:12} Leo cepit sufficienter catulis suis, et necavit leænis suis: et implevit præda speluncas suas, et cubile suum rapina.
{2:12} The lion seized enough for his young, and killed enough for his lionesses, and he filled his caves with prey, and his den with spoils.

{2:13} Ecce ego ad te, dicit Dominus exercituum, et succendam usque ad fumum quadrigas tuas, et leunculos tuos comedet gladius: et exterminabo de terra prædam tuam, et non audietur ultra vox nunciorum tuorum.
{2:13} Behold, I will come to you, says the Lord of hosts, and I will burn your chariots even to smoke, and the sword will devour your young lions. And I will exterminate your prey from the land, and the voice of your messengers shall no longer be heard.

[Nahum 3]

{3:1} Væ civitas sanguinum, universa mendacii dilaceratione plena: non recedet a te rapina.
{3:1} Woe to the city of blood, filled with all manner of lies and violence. Crime shall not depart from you:

{3:2} Vox flagelli, et vox impetus rotæ, et equi frementis, et quadrigæ ferventis, et equitis ascendentis:
{3:2} the voice of the whip, and the voice of the turning wheels, and of the neighing horse, and the burning chariot, and the horsemen who ride,

{3:3} et micantis gladii, et fulgurantis hastæ, et multitudinis interfectæ, et gravis ruinæ: nec est finis cadaverum, et corruent in corporibus suis.
{3:3} and of the flashing sword and the shining spear, and of a multitude executed and a grievous ruination. Neither is there an end to the dead bodies, and they will fall down upon their dead bodies.

{3:4} Propter multitudinem fornicationum meretricis speciosæ, et gratæ, et habentis maleficia, quæ vendidit gentes in fornicationibus suis, et familias in maleficiis suis:
{3:4} Because of the multitude of fornications of the kept woman, beautiful and pleasing and practicing evil deeds, who sold nations by her fornications, and families by her evil doing:

~ The word ‘maleficia’ can refer to sorcery or witchcraft, but more generally refers to evil doing or deceitful crimes.

{3:5} Ecce ego ad te, dicit Dominus exercituum, et revelabo pudenda tua in facie tua, et ostendam Gentibus nuditatem tuam, et regnis ignominiam tuam.
{3:5} behold, I will come to you, says the Lord of hosts, and I will reveal your shame to your face, and I will show your nakedness to the Gentiles, and your disgrace to kingdoms.

~ The word ‘Gentiles,’ in the Christian view of the Bible, refers to the people of the world who are impious, secular, worldly persons.

{3:6} Et proiiciam super te abominationes, et contumeliis te afficiam, et ponam te in exemplum.
{3:6} And I will cast abominations over you, and I will afflict you with abuse, and I will make an example of you.

{3:7} Et erit: omnis, qui viderit te, resiliet a te, et dicet: Vastata est Ninive: quis commovebit super te caput? unde quæram consolatorem tibi?
{3:7} And this shall be: everyone who sees you, will recoil from you, and he will say: “Nineveh has been devastated.” Who will shake his head over you? Where might I seek consolation for you?

{3:8} Numquid melior es Alexandria populorum, quæ habitat in fluminibus? aquæ in circuti eius: cuius divitiæ, mare: aquæ muri eius.
{3:8} Are you better than the populous Alexandria, which dwells along the rivers? Waters encircle it: the sea, with its riches. The waters are its walls.

{3:9} Æthiopia fortitudo eius, et Ægyptus, et non est finis: Africa, et Libyes fuerunt in auxilio tuo.
{3:9} Ethiopia and Egypt were its strength, and there is no limit. Africa and Northern Africa have been your helpers.

~ The word ‘Libyes’ does not actually refer to the modern-day nation of Libya. During Biblical times, the word Libyes referred to Northern Africa in general and to the people who lived there. Therefore, the translation of ‘Libyes’ as ‘Northern Africa,’ rather than as Libya, is less literal and yet more accurate.

{3:10} Sed et ipsa in transmigrationem ducta est in captivitatem: parvuli eius elisi sunt in capite omnium viarum, et super inclytos eius miserunt sortem, et omnes optimates eius confixi sunt in compedibus.
{3:10} Nevertheless, she has been led away with the transmigration into captivity. Her little ones have been dashed in pieces at the top of every street, and they have cast lots over her celebrities, and all her elite have been fastened together in shackles.

{3:11} Et tu ergo inebriaberis, et eris despecta: et tu quæres auxilium ab inimico.
{3:11} Therefore, you also will become inebriated, and you will be despised, and you will seek help from the opposition.

{3:12} Omnes munitiones tuæ sicut ficus cum grossis suis: si concussæ fuerint, cadent in os comedentis.
{3:12} All your fortresses will be like fig trees with their green figs. If they are shaken violently, they will fall into the mouth of the one who devours.

{3:13} Ecce populus tuus mulieres in medio tui: inimicis tuis adapertione pandentur portæ terræ tuæ, devorabit ignis vectes tuos.
{3:13} Behold, women are at the center of your people. The gates of your land will be opened wide for your enemies; fire will devour your bars.

{3:14} Aquam propter obsidionem hauri tibi, extrue munitiones tuas: intra in lutum, et calca, subigens tene laterem.
{3:14} Draw in water because of the blockade; build up your fortresses. Go into the clay and tread; work it to make brick.

{3:15} Ibi comedet te ignis: peribis gladio, devorabit te ut bruchus: congregare ut bruchus: multiplicare ut locusta.
{3:15} There, fire will devour you. You will perish by the sword; it will devour you like the beetle. Gather together like the beetle. Multiply like the locust.

{3:16} Plures fecisti negotiationes tuas quam stellæ sint cæli: bruchus expansus est, et avolavit.
{3:16} You have made more negotiations than there are stars in the sky. The beetle has spread out and flown away.

{3:17} Custodes tui quasi locustæ: et parvuli tui quasi locustæ locustarum, quæ considunt in sepibus in die frigoris: sol ortus est, et avolaverunt, et non est cognitus locus earum ubi fuerint.
{3:17} Your guardians are like locusts, and your little ones are like locusts among locusts, which alight on hedges on a cold day. The sun rose up, and they flew away, and there was no way to know the place where they had been.

~ The phrase ‘locustæ locustarum’ does not mean ‘locusts of locusts,’ but rather ‘locusts among locusts.’ The genitive case is not always to be translated as a possessive, as ‘of something.’

{3:18} Dormitaverunt pastores tui, rex Assur: sepelientur principes tui: latitavit populus tuus in montibus, et non est qui congreget.
{3:18} Your shepherds have become drowsy, king Assur. Your princes will be buried. Your people have remained hidden in the mountains, and there is no one to gather them.

{3:19} Non est obscura contritio tua, pessima est plaga tua: omnes qui audierunt auditionem tuam, compresserunt manum super te: quia super quem non transiit malitia tua semper?
{3:19} Your destruction is not hidden; your wound is grievous. All who have heard of your fame have clenched their hands over you, because over whom has your wickedness not trampled continually?

~ This last passage is clearly about the Antichrist. He is the false god from Assyria (Assur), the wicked king. His fall will not be hidden; it will be seen by the whole world. He will be grievously wounded, but not killed. Even the wicked will clench their fists over them, for they too hated being ruled by him.

The Sacred BibleThe Prophecy of Nahum